Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics are both used to describe the results of an experiment. In addition, they are used to confirm that an independent variable has an effect on behavior. Furthermore, both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics are used in the stages of data analysis of an experiment. Moreover, Descriptive statistics are used in inferential statistics (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister & Zechmeister, 2009). Differences between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics exist.
CRITICAL APPRAISAL Critical appraisal is the process of judging the trustworthiness and the relevance of the evidences (Chambers 2004) presented in a research paper (Carnwell and Daly 2001). A critical appraisal can also be carried out as part of data collection, nevertheless its ultimate aim is to further exclude articles with poor methodological quality. It is important to use appraisal tools that are evidence based. A quantitative and qualitative critical appraisal tool (Appendices 1 and 2) will be the first step in assessing the quality of chosen studies (Greenhalgh 2010). This will be followed by making use of more specific critical appraisal tools depending on whether the study is a survey, a cohort, or a randomised control trial.
Data collected were analyzed by using three approaches: 1. Cronbach’s alpha (a) was used to test the reliability. Cronbach’s alpha indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another. This is to make sure that the scales are free of random or unstable errors and produce consistent results over time (Cooper & Schindler, 1998); 2. Descriptive statistics where the researcher used mean, standard deviation and variance to get an idea on how the respondents reacted to the items in the questionnaire.
Research is finding out information in relation to a hypothesis a researcher has constructed in order to prove or disprove it. Research designs refer to the way in which this information is collected in order for it to be analysed, it provides a standard layout for data collection. A research design is chosen by the researcher in order to fit the criteria of the required data to satisfy their hypothesis. The two forms of research designs discussed in this essay will be Experimental and Correlational research. The purpose of experimental research is to compare situations in a controlled environment, under strict conditions in order to establish causality.
Distribution of the residual in multiple regressions should follow normal distribution (Lind and Marchal and Whaten, 2008). There are two ways to conduct the normality test and... ... middle of paper ... ...f-test is the overall evaluator for the whole model and t-test is the evaluator for each of the independent variable. Thus, in this T-Test According to Cooper and Schindler (2011), t-test is a test to know the statistical significance of an independent variable towards dependent variable. Writers will compare the results of the t-test with the ANOVA table. Writer will compare the results of the T-test with the significance level of the research.
Describe the similarities and differences between correlation and regression. Correlation is a way of measuring the extent to which two variables are related. Correlation lets us know if there is a relationship or no relationship present between the two different variables. Regression on the other hand is a way of predicting the value of one variable from another. Regression is a hypothetical model of the relationship between the two variables.
The researchers prepare a frequency distribution which shows the frequencies as descriptive statistics. Percentages, and averages are also descriptive statistics. Therefore, the descriptive statistics describe sets of data collected through observation. Then the statistics are organized in tables, pie charts, graphs etc. Researchers must be sure the kind of descriptive statistics matches the kind of data that has been collected.
Statistical sampling can be classified with three criteria: 1) the sample size must be determined objectively or quantitatively, 2) the sample must be selected randomly and 3) the sample result must be evaluated mathematically. Statistical sampling is appropriate when the population is made up of large number of similar transaction and internal control is good, if internal control is poor the auditor may have difficult errors in advance so may use non-statistical sampling. When auditor want to evaluated sample result statistically with a substantive test, the auditor should determines the most likely estimate of the price amount of error in the population and calculates the range within the true. In test of control the auditor must finds the error rate of sample and then determine how high the actual error rate could be, at a particular level of
The minimum, or smallest, value of the variable is 1 for AL and CE. Mean is the arithmetic mean across the observations. It is the most broadly applied measure of central tendency. It is generally so-called the average. The mean is sensitive to tremendously large or small values.
This model conceptualizes validity to a level in which respondents are able to connect in expected psychological process during testing; once the processes are identified, experimental manipulations are introduced to alter these processes and determine whether the manipulations are introduced to alter theses processes and determine whether the manipulations affect test scores in meaningful ways. The PF framework reverses the usual procedure for dealing with extraneous variables that alter psychological test scores: Instead of viewing them as problematic, the PF model conceptualizes variables that are seen as confounds in traditional validity assessment (e.g., self-presentation effects) as opportunities for manipulation, exploration, and focused analysis windows on underlying process that would otherwise remain hidden. Psychological activities in which people engage when responding to psychological tests are determined by the nature of the instruments themselves by the types of questions asked and the task by the nature of the instruments themselves by the types of questions asked and the tasks and activities required of the respondent (Bornstein,