The Characteristics of Intelligent Behavior

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WOMAN’S UNIVERSITY IN AFRICA a) Describe the characteristics of intelligent behaviour (5 marks) Stair, R.M. and Reynolds, G.W (1996) defines intelligent behaviour as the ability to learn from experience and apply the acquired knowledge, handle complex situations, solve problems when important information is missing, determine what is important, react quickly and correctly to a new situation, understand visual images, process and manipulate symbols, be creative and imaginative and use of heuristics. It is from this definition that some of the characteristics of intelligent behaviour will be explored. The ability to learn from experience and apply the knowledge acquired from past experience, is key to intelligent behaviour. While this ability is natural in humans, it is not natural in machines. For this reason, such abilities need to be carefully programmed in them. Deep Blue for example, used this technique to beat the renowned chess grandmaster Gary Kasperov in 1997. After learning from past experiences, it is an attribute of intelligent behaviour to apply the gained knowledge to new settings and situations. Acting in complex environments is an aspect which describes intelligent behaviour. Intelligent system or agent must be able handle complex situations. Careful planning and elaborate programming is required for computer systems to handle perplexing situations. Use of heuristics This refers to the making of decisions using general rules of thumb or informed guesses without completely searching all the available alternatives or possibilities. This attribute of intelligent behaviour, whilst natural to humans, is difficult to achieve in machines. Given the right programs, a computer system can obtain good results/solutions t... ... middle of paper ... ... the problem, called heuristics. This results in increase in efficiency of the search process in that fewer states are expanded with an informed search than with a blind one. Some nodes or paths are clearly favoured while others are omitted and not elaborated on. Time is not wasted by choosing redundant or irrelevant paths. This means the better the heuristics the better and faster the search will be performed. The fewer the steps needed to obtain the solution path, the better the solution path will be. So far, the best known algorithm in Informed search category is A* search. Others include hill climbing, Best first, Greedy and Beam. References Russell, S. J., Norvig P. (2003). Artificial intelligence: A Modern Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Stair, R.M. and Reynolds, G.W (1996).Principles of Information Systems. Thompson Learning. Toronto
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