The Causes of Hyperthyroidism

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The thyroid gland is found in the front of the neck and produces two main hormones. The hormones are called thuroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). Together these hormones regulate the body’s metabolism by increasing energy use in cells, regulate growth and development, help to maintain body temperature and aid in oxygen consumption. These two hormones are regulated by hormones produced by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The hypothalamus senses changes in body’s metabolic rate and releases a hormone known as thyropin-releasing hormone (TRH). This hormone then flows through connecting vessels to the pituitary gland which signals it to release another hormone. This hormone is known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH then makes its way to the bloodstream until it reaches the thyroid where it is then signaled to activate T3 and T4 production [1]. This mechanism is controlled by a negative feedback loop meaning that when there is a sufficient amount of thyroid hormones in the blood stream, this will signal back to stop production of thyroid stimulating hormones. Complications occur when the thyroid hormones keep increasing even though there is already a sufficient amount of T3 and T4 in the blood stream. This process of over expression of thryroid hormones is known as hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a general term that includes any disease that has a consequence of an overabundance of thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism is a general term but there are many variant diseases that are in the hyperthyroidism category. These diseases include diffuse toxic goiter, Basedow’s disease, thyrotoxicosis, Parry’s and Graves’ disease. 1. Overview of patient phenotype Hyperthyroidism has a plethora of causes. The major causes of ... ... middle of paper ... ...yakit T, Thongmak S, Premprapha T. Comparative evaluation of two different dosage calculation protocols of iodine-131 in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;93(8):969-977. 7. Federman DG, Chanko EH. Differential Diagnosis in Internal Medicine: From Symptom to Diagnosis. JAMA.2007;298(17):2070-2075. doi:10.1001/jama.298.17.2072. 8. Hegedus L, Bonnema SJ, Bennedek FN. Management of Simple Nodular Goiter. Endocrine Reviews, February 2003, 24(1):102–132. 9. Geffner DL, Hershman JM (July 1992). "β-Adrenergic blockade for the treatment of hyperthyroidism". The American Journal of Medicine 93 (1): 61–8. 10. Andersson, Maria; Zimmermann, Michael B. (2010). Influence of Iodine Deficiency and Excess on Thyroid Function Tests 28. pp. 45–69 11. Vaidya B, Kendall-Taylor P, Pearce SHS. (2002). The Genetics of autoimmune Thyroid Disease 87(12):5385.

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