The Causes and Impacts of Strokes

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Strokes are not only the leading cause of mentally disabling adults, but they are also the third most common reason for deaths worldwide (Jarvis, 2012). In general, a stroke, also called a “cerebrovascular accident,” occurs when blood flow of the vascular system is blocked from reaching parts of the brain (Jarvis, 2012). There are two types of stroke, an ischemic stroke or a hemorrhagic stroke, and they differ in the way they affect the vascular system. An ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke, accounting for 80 percent of all strokes, and it is due to a thrombus or embolus blocking blood vessels supplying the brain (Durukan & Tatlisumak, 2007). A hemorrhagic stroke is less common, but is caused by the rupturing of a blood vessel in the brain and causes bleeding (Jarvis, 2012).

In both hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, blood vessels are compromised, thus blood flow is unable to reach the brain. The restriction of cerebral blood flow results in an insufficient amount of nutrients, such as oxygen and glucose, which are being delivered to the brain. This then deters metabolic and functional processes (Boss, 2010). With the decrease of cerebral blood flow, an “ischemic cascade” is initiated within the cell (Durukan & Tatlisumak, 2007, p. 186). Due to the depleted amount of oxygen and glucose being transported to brain tissue, ATP must be anaerobically produced until oxygen can be supplied. If oxygen and glucose are not supplied in time, ATP stops being made, membrane receptors lose function, glutamate is released and a buildup of intracellular calcium, sodium, and chloride levels results (Boss, 2010). Overtime, if oxygen supply is still unsubstantial, acidosis occurs, which causes free radical formation, mitocho...

... middle of paper ... is a significant increase in ability of the heart and vascular system endurance as a result of training on a treadmill.

In conclusion, genograms identify possible genetic predispositions in acquiring hereditary diseases. The author’s genogram allowed for the reflection of prominent family conditions and presented the opportunity for the author to educate herself on modifying behaviors that can reduce their risk for experiencing a stroke. Additionally, Gordon’s activity-exercise pattern and nutritional-metabolic pattern are applied to assess personal risks involved in a stroke. Through employing the nursing process and implementing Gordon’s functional healthh pattern to assess the elements of a stroke, the author was able create interventions to promote their own healthy lifestyle while symbiotically reducing their risks for suffering from a stroke.

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