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The Bus: More than just a bus?

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On December 1, 1955 the 42 year old, NAACP secretary found herself in the middle of what would be later classified as the first huge movement in desegregating America especially the South. Parks was thrown in jail that day, but she wouldn’t stay for long. Martin Luther King Jr. and Edgar Daniel Nixon worked hard and fast to plain their retaliation to this injustice. Four days later on Monday December 5, the bus boycott began. Black cab drivers and those with cars help to transport African Americans where need be. (Gates 223-224) Rosa Parks pled guilty, but was fined fourteen dollars and convicted. King and Nixon used this incident as a catapult to launch their plans of desegregating America by peaceful protests and demonstrations (Lowery 420). In 1876 the Jim Crow Laws were created in belief that African Americans and white Americans were born “separate but equal.” White and African Americans shared nothing; not bus seats, schools, restrooms, water fountains, and even where they sat in restaurants. In making these laws white Americans made it crystal clear to everybody that they felt superior when compared to the African American race. To most, Rosa Parks’ insubordination towards the Jim Crow Laws came as a surprise, but those that knew her wondered why it took so long. When Rosa Parks sat in the front of the bus instead of the back and then refused to move for a white man, some southern white Americans felt that their comfort zone and community was being threatened, but many felt that this was the right thing to do. This paper will focus on the beliefs of southern white Americans and the fact that they felt like change was a must.

Born on February 4, 1913 to James and Leona McCauley, Rosa Louise McCauley Parks could recognize ...

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...and up and fight for their freedom. But also inspired white southern Americans to stand up and fight for justice as well.

Works Cited

Gates, Henry Louis., and Cornel West. The African-American Century: How Black Americans Have Shaped Our Country. New York, NY [u.a.: Free, 2000. Print.

Hine, Darlene Clark. Black Women in America. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005. Print.

Hodes, Martha. Sex, Love, Race: Crossing Boundaries in North American History. New York: New York UP, 1999. Print.

Lowery, Charles D., and John F. Marszalek. Encyclopedia of African-American Civil Rights : from Emancipation to the Present. New York: Greenwood, 1992. Print.

Pilgrim, David. "What Was Jim Crow?" Ferris State University: Michigan College Campuses in Big Rapids MI, Grand Rapids MI, Off Campus Locations Across Michigan. Sept. 2000. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. .
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