The Oxford English Dictionary defines English as 'Of or related to the West Germanic language spoken in England and used in many varieties throughout the world' (Seargeant, P. 2012, p. 7). Invasion in the 9th century by Scandinavians, who settled in the north of England and the establishment of Danelaw in 886 AD defining the area governed by the Danes in the north and east, had a marked effect on the language spoken there (Beal, J. 2012, p. 59). These periods are known as Early and Later Old English (Beal, J. 2012, p. 50).
English in the World, (2012), (U214, Worlds of English, DVD ROM), Milton Keynes, The Open University. McCormick, K. (2012), 'English and Other Languages' in Seargeant, P. and Swann, J. (ed.) History, Diversity, Change (U214, English in the World), Milton Keynes, The Open University, pp. 245-290.
On the second level, is the process and battles the language underwent to achieve linguistic hegemony amongst other world languages. The evolution of English into the form we know today can be traced back to the amalgamation and assimilation of many different languages and dialects on the British Isles. Linguists and historians have traced the beginning of English to an Anglo-Frisian dialect brought to Britain by a group of Germanic invaders known as the Angles, Saxons and Jutes during the 5th century AD. The invaders called their language ‘Anglisc’ and this is where the modern words English and England originate. The English of this time period is widely known as “Old English” and would be unintelligible to speakers of modern day English.
In each era, there is an affection of other tribe’s languages on English language. As an example, Germanic tribes who moved into Britain and have an impact on Old English language are (Angles, Saxons, and Jutes). In the same way, the effects of the tribes lead to have many changes in vowel system, which calls the Great Vowel Shift .In this paper, I will discuss the Great Vowel Shift and the the process of that huge change. The meaning of Great Vowel Shift: The Great Vowel Shift happened in Modern English between 1500- 1800 which make some changes from Middle English to Modern English. Otto Jespersen is a Danish linguist and he is the discoverer of The Great Vowel Shift.
The Idea of Vernacular: an Anthology of Middle English Theory 1280–1520. Eds. Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, et al. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999. 331–352.
107-109. Mackie, J.L. (1976) Problems from Locke, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 173-7, in Warburton (2011), ‘The Self’, Exploring philosophy, Milton Keynes, The Open University, pp. 110-114.
The French were not only the new aristocracy in England, but the new society. The English amended their language and their culture in an effort to more resemble the French and to communicate with their new lords. The English language was more changed by the Norman Conquest than by any other event in the course of English history. Middle English is defined as the four hundred year period between the Norman Conquest and the time the printing press was introduced to England in 1476. This essay will explore the specific effects that the French had on Middle English morphology, phonology, syntax, semantics and lexicon.
It is quite difficult to understand it even for the contemporary Native English speakers. Next step in the development of English was the Normand invasion in 1066 bringing the French language, spoken by royalty through the following centuries until the English language became dominant again in 14th century. This period is called Middle English. With a Great Vowel Shift, change of the pronunciation, and the invention of the printing the English spelling and grammar became fixed. This period is called Early Modern English.
2.1 Old English (449-1100) According to A. Campbell (1959:1), Old English also known as Anglo Saxon is ''the vernacular Germanic language of great Britain as it is recorded in manuscripts and inscriptions dating from before about 1100''. The Old English period was marked by such important historical events as occupation of Great Britain by Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians in 449;conversion to Christianity and introducing of writing; Scandinavian invasion in 787; reign of King Alfred in 871,who promoted the translation of Latin works into English, and composing of the Old English epic Beowulf in
The Norman invasion marked a crucial time in the development of the English language. The conquest resulted in the development of two categories of the English language called the Old English and the Middle English (Thomas, 2008). Old English refers to the language used before the Norman Conquest, while the Middle English refers to the language used after the conquest following the addition of numerous French vocabularies. The main difference between the two categories is the grammatical elements and the collection of words (Butcher, 2013). The conquest also influenced the development of sound and structure elements of the English language.