The Birmingham Campaign

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Ever since the African American race was brought over to the United States they have been mistreated. Upon their arrival, Americans instantly enslaved them and used them for work, not even considering them as people. With the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865, slavery was finally outlawed; however, “colored” people were still treated unequally through segregation. Segregation was legalized by the Court decision in the case Plessy v. Ferguson. But, in 1952, the case Brown v. Board of Education upturned the Plessy v. Ferguson precedent saying that the “separate but equal doctrine was unconstitutional. The result was a nation wide integration. Everything from schools to businesses to restaurants and bathrooms became integrated. Unfortunately, not all states took to this integration kindly. Many did everything they could to resist African Americans from mixing with whites. The southern most states were particularly vicious about this segregation going to the extent of bombings to quell the hopes of African Americans. But one city was determined to fight segregation. Birmingham, Alabama was the site of one of the most prominent parts of the civil rights movement and despite a decade since Brown v. Board of Education, Birmingham refused to integrate. The Birmingham campaign was one of the most influential movements of the civil rights movement and was the turning point in the war against segregation. The violence and cruelty inflicted upon African Americans not only united the people of the city, but it also united the people of the nation.

The African American Civil Rights Movement was aimed at outlawing the discrimination that many African Americans faced in the 1950’s and 1960’s. In ...

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...rying to accomplish. By taking a closer look at the Birmingham campaign, people will not only realize the effect that it had on the civil rights movement, but also the model for which they could live their lives today and work for a better tomorrow.

Works Cited

Alabama Governor Wallace Administrative files. (1963). Telegram from george andrews, 05/13/63. (SG12655, folder 3)

“Bombing” (1963, September 16). 20th Bombing here against negros. Birmingham


Huntley H., & Montgomery, D. (2004). Black workers struggle for equality in birmingham. University of Illinois Press, 2b, 2d

Jonathon, B. S. (2007). Letter from Birmingham jail. In Encyclopedia of alabama. Alabama Humanities Foundation and Auburn University.

M. King, personal communication, May 5, 1963.

“Six Dead” (1963, September 16). Six dead after church bombing. The Washington Post.
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