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However, Wundt’s greatest contribution towards modern psychology was his method of introspection which discovered conscious mental processes by asking individuals to look deeper and state their sensations and perceptions. Even though psychologists today greatly criticize his method of introspection as unscientific, it considerably contributed to the development of psychology towards experiments in a more scientific manner. Functionalism arose from structuralism where it studies the function of conscious mind rather than the structure and it was focused on how our minds adapt to the changing environment. James prospected the mental activities as having developed through ages of evoluti... ... middle of paper ... ... hence making it equally helpful towards the development of modern psychology. Works Cited Mcleod, S. 2014.
Kneessi, D. (n.d.). Harvey A. Carr. Internet Source for Biographies on Psychologists. Retrieved April 10, 2014, from http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/datelines_harveycarr.html Watson, J. (1903).
The result was a science of behavior that viewed human beings as machines (Schultz & Schultz, 2008). This paper offers a discussion of the evolution of behaviorism, the contributions of Albert Bandura, and the impact of behaviorism on modern psychology and life in the 21st century. The major schools of thought which preceded behaviorism were structuralism and functionalism. Structuralism is considered the first school of psychology. Its focus was to break down mental processes into basic components, in trying to understand the elements of consciousness through introspection (Schultz & Schultz, 2008).
Emile Durkheim (1858 - 1917). Retrieved July 31, 2014, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/durkheim/ ChangingMinds.org. (2008). Marcel Mauss. Retrieved August 5, 2014, from Marcel Mauss: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/sociology/theorists/mauss.htm Kreis, S. (2000).
Retrieved April 20, 2014, from http://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/psychpedia/little-albert-experiment Lilienfeld, Lynn, Namy and Woolf (2013) Psychology, John B. Watson. (1999, May 1). Psychology History. Retrieved April 20, 2014, from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/watson.htm WGBH. (1998).
He believed that analyzing consciousness as an individual’s subjective experience of the mind and the world, should inform scientific psychology (Rieber, 2001). Titchener, who was a one student of Wundt, on the other hand, described his system as structuralism, which involves the analysis of the structure of the mind. Tichener broke down consciousness into elemental feelings and sensations. Wundt held the belief that consciousness was vital in scientific psychology, thus dependent on structuralism. He used introspection to study the functions of the mind occurring in active experience.
As a psychologist I am especially interested in the effects of the philosophical traditions on the development of psychological theories. Empiricism closely fits behaviorism, especially Watson's approach. Empiricism conceptualized the mind as an originally blank or empty recorder ‘tabula rasa’ (Locke, 1689). In accordance, Watson (1913) argued that the mind cannot be the main interest of psychology because it cannot be observed objectively. Therefore behavior should be what psychologists study (Watson, 1913).