Maize belongs to family Poaceae, is among the most important cereal crops of the world; it is used for three main purposes as human food, feed for poultry and livestock. Maize being the highest yielding cereal crop in the world is of significant importance for developing countries, where rapidly increasing population has already out stripped the available food supplies (Shafique et al. 2011). The major producers of maize are USA, China, Brazil, India, Argentina, Indonesia and Ukraine. It is cultivated in the world on 159,531 thousands hectares with 885289 thousand tons production (FAO 2011).
The East Asia Rice Working Group, for example, was created in an effort to exempt rice from trade liberalization (The Rice Industry). Since the dawn of civilization, rice has served humans as a life-giving cereal in the humid regions of Asia and, to a lesser extent, in West Africa. Introduction of rice into Europe and the Americas has led to its increased use in human diets. In the eastern half of Asia, where 90 to 95 percent of the rice produced is locally consumed, the grain is the largest source of total food energy. In the year 2000, about 40 percent of the people on earth, mostly those in the populous, less-developed countries, depended on rice as the major energy source.
It is still the basic ingredient in Scotch and Irish whiskey. Straw of wheat is also used as fodder for livestock. Wheat is the oldest domesticated plant on the earth. According to paleobotanists modern domesticated form of wheat is started around 8500 BC in Southeastern Anatolia (Turkey). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) provides approximately 55% carbohydrates and 20% of food calories consumed globally (Breiman and Graur, 1995).It is also the staple food of 38 % of the global population (Laegreid et al., 1999).
In Northeastern Asia rice consumption has been declining, but numbers continue to grow in the developing regions such as Southeast Asia and Africa (Childs, 2012). Globally, rice contributes to 1/5 of the total calories consumed by humans. Calories from rice are particularly essential in Asian cultures (Khan & Rashid, 1986). For decades rice production has expanded more rapidly than the global population, doubling between 1961 and 2001 (Harriss-White, 2005). The grain is grown in 112 countries world-wide and is a fundamental crop in the global commodity market (Food and Agricultural Organization, 2004).
The question is, can we grow enough wheat for the demand our population growth in the world? Wheat is grown around the world more than any other crop, and the production of wheat is second to corn. Even though the wheat technology has not been up to other crops’ research and development, wheat has still been a main contender of world production of grain(Spiegel, 2013). In the 1930 the US started a hybrid wheat program that made no progress in 30 years. But in 1962, the program started to make some progress by creating the first cytoplasmic male sterility.
Maize C.N: 20 (Diploid) Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Liliopsida Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Genus: Zea Species: Z. mays Introduction: Maize, is the world's 3rd leading cereal crop, following wheat and rice. USA produces nearly 40% of the total world’s production and it is also the staple food of Americans. After the America, largest corn producing country, are the People's Republic of China & Brazil. Corn is the leading cereal in USA, with ordinary production 3 times that of triticum aestivum. Maize is the principal food particle in Mexico, America, South America, and is important as a food grain southern Africa & China.
I INTRODUCTION Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important cereal crop all over the world. It ranks third in world production after wheat and rice, however, based on productivity, this crop ranks first followed by rice and wheat. It is high yielding, easy to process, readily digestible and cheaper than other cereals and used as a basic raw material for the production of starch, oil, protein, alcoholic beverages, food sweeteners and more recently as biofuel. The area under maize is spreading rapidly because of its productivity and adaptability to a wide range of environments. Globally, maize is known as queen of cereals because it has the highest genetic yield potential among the cereals.
Although the two do not look much alike, at a DNA level they are surprisingly alike, such as having the same number of chromosomes and a remarkably similar arrangement of genes (The University of Utah). Currently, the United States is the largest producer of corn in the world. In 2010, it produced 32% of the world’s corn crop. Corn is grown on approximately 400,000 U.S. farms, showing the importance of corn in the United States’ diets. Twenty percent of the corn produced is exported and corn grown for grain accounts for almost one quarter of the harvested crop acres in this country (National Corn Grower's Associatio... ... middle of paper ... ...ther.
Though there are numerous types of corn, yellow corn currently dominates the market. The state of Iowa is the leader in corn production and often has an over-abundance every year. Small towns in Iowa have sustained the growth of corn for generations. Often, these close knit communities dedicate much of their lives and livelihood to the agriculture industry. Some advancements in the farming method actually came from Iowa cities.
Domestication of Maize Throughout the history of the human race there have been a great number of crops that were discovered, planted, and over time domesticated. Wheat in the Middle East, rice in Asia, and rye in Eastern Europe are all some of today’s staple crops that feed millions every day. Crops like these make up over 50% of the world’s total food supply. However, the third most eaten crop in the world is maize, or corn, which provides 21% of human nutrition. Today maize feeds millions across the world, but its history is different from the others.