However, as the twentieth century dawned, bringing with it electricity, and production on an unprecedented scale, consumerism wasn’t just a new trend. It became modernism — a lifestyle. Cultural commentary abounded in reaction to the trend of modernism seizing urban life. With new developments came excitement, and as artists saw these ideas come to fruition around them, they began to mimic (and mock) their ubiquity. Jacques Tati was the foremost name in mockery in 1960s france, and in his 1967 film Playtime he lampoons this grandeur.
Art Deco was a style that flourished throughout 1910 to around 1935. Known for its advancements in the art of advertising, the style had begun to prosper around the start of World War I (1914 – 1919), and had further developed to become a combination of various styles, as well as a rebellion against the concepts of Art Nouveau. Originally known to be referred to as the Art Moderne style, the name was changed only after the period had already passed its peak. The origin of the name involved the idea of decorative arts, hence the shortened name Art Deco, but previously the style had taken root within the time period of Modernism. Modernists sought to abstract the form and move away from the naturalistic curves found within the Art Nouveau period,
Art Nouveau (literally ‘new art’ in French) was a popular international style of art, developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and reaching its peak between 1890 and 1910. The primary aim of this movement was to break free from the previous constraints that had been placed upon artists traditionally and to completely revolutionise design – an aim that, without a doubt, came to be achieved. The evidence of this can be seen in the work of several prominent designers at the time – such as artist Alphonse Mucha and architect Antoni Gaudi – and even within other movements – the Arts and Crafts movement being a prime example. The way in which these figures and this movement have been influenced by Art Nouveau in particular will be explored in this essay. Art Nouveau is considered to be a ‘total’ art style, as it encompasses and can be applied to all areas of art, including architecture, interior design, the decorative arts and the fine arts.
Seeking a change in the socio-economic condition was many of the vital ethic modernists promoted. 'Modernism seems to define the cultural turmoil provoked by the industrial revolution for most of a century, 1880 to 1950. Its distinctive, perhaps defining, characteristics was a constant search of novelty. '(http://www.philadelphia-reflections.com/blog/735.htm) Industrial revolution was one of the decisive factor that saw the emergence of illustrations during the modernist era. Products were produced in scale that had never been made before.
Baroque style had a huge impact on French Culture in the seventeenth and early eighteenth century, but one might also say that the French, Louis XIV in particular, had an equally great impact on the Baroque style itself. France magnified this style and helped to popularize it across Europe. Many different influences, techniques and textiles came together to create the iconic style known as Baroque. It is safe to say that style, will holds a renowned place in history and will continue to influence fashions and interior design for years to come.
No longer was type just needed for the publication of books and newspapers, but there was now a commercial need for advertisement. The 19th century witnessed an astonishing succession of new technologies, imaginative forms, and new functions for graphic design. It was an inventive and prolific period for new typeface designs, ranging from fanciful and outrageous novelty styles to entirely new categories of type such as Egyptians and sans serif. This is a topic worthy of study because the way in which communicate with the world says a lot about the people doing the communicating. This paper will argue that the industrial revolution allowed for the proliferation of fonts in the 19th century for two main reasons.
“Industrial Revolution is the period of major industrialization that took place during the late 1700s and early 1800s.” Britain was the ‘mother’ of the Industrial Revolution. During that period Britain was making great strides in the innovation of new materials such as the development of superior steel, cast iron and glass. For a time, this gave Britain the advantage over most ‘advanced’ countries in development, mostly as it relates to construction. There were also great developments in the field of agriculture, manufacturing and power generation. This sensation of development quickly spread worldwide and had a changing effect on culture, economics and social idealism.
This economic growth, also called the commercial revolution, helped to fuel the industrial revolution of the eighteenth century by “Providing large and expanding markets for European industries” (p. 409) The commercial revolution created the need for new technology to meet the demands of the new and ever changing markets created by the European expansion. The commercial revolution also “Contributed the large amounts of capital necessary to finance the construction of factories and machines for the industrial revolution.” (p. 409) The industrial revolution began in the late eighteenth century with the invention of the steam engine by James Watt. Thanks to the steam engine, people were now able to harness the power needed to run pumps, locomotives and eventually machines used in factories. “It (the steam engine) provided a means for harnessing and utilizing heat energy to furnish driving power for machines.” (p. 412) The British quickly moved to the forefront of the industrial revolution due to their investment in the coal and iron industries. England was also at the forefront of modern banking due to the large amounts of profit from commerce that the British experienced.
We see how the camera and colour theory influenced their work as well as how the modern cityscape and social interactions consumed their creations. Even today Paris plays a role in Impressionism. Its museums house some of the greatest examples of period impressionist work on view, showing that nearly two centuries later Paris is still at the heart of Impressionism.
Paul Rutan III Art 461 Critical Review #1 September 26, 2014 Garamond and Baskerville: Typography as Art The advent of the moveable type by Johan Gutenberg in 1455 marked the first step towards transforming Western civilization from a predominantly illiterate culture into one of universal literacy. The rapid spread of the printed word brought new ideas and philosophies that brought Europe into the modern world. Printing with moveable type served as the catalyst for the Renaissance, Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. Simply put, it could be argued that typography is the most important inventions in Western Civilization’s history. (Meggs, 68) A typographer is one who prints using small movable wooden or metal pieces that have alphabet characters on them.