In this paper, I am going to talk about the Aborigines, describing their origins up to the present. The Aborigines came originally from somewhere in Asia and have been in Australia for at least 40,000 years. The first settlement occurred during an era of lowered sea levels, when there was an almost continuous land bridge between Asia and Australia, allowing them to cross over between the two continents. By 30,000 years ago most of the continent was occupied, including the southwest and southeast corners as well as the Highlands of the island of New Guinea (Mulvaney, 55-56). Archaeologists have found that much of the interior of Australia was abandoned due to severe climatic conditions between 25,000 and 15,000 years ago and reoccupied after the conditions improved.
I will first introduce the background and logic behind the two theories, and then I will argue, with supporting genetic evidence, why the “Out of Africa” theory is currently the most widely accepted in the field. The Multiregional hypothesis was originally proposed in 1984 by Milford H. Wolpoff, Alan Thorne and Xinzhi Wu. The theory indicates that the worldwide expansion of modern humans arose from a series of regionally distinct phases of human evolution that physically replaced Old World humans over thousands of years (Wolpoff et al. 1984). According to the theory, about half of the Homo erectus that originated in Africa split up and migrated out to Europe, Asia and Australia.
Because a comparatively greater number of sites have been radiocarbon-dated to around 40,000 BP, ho we ver, some researchers have come to doubt the accuracy of the thermoluminescence technique (indeed, thermoluminescence dating of the Jinmium site in the Northern Territory improbably suggested human settlement as early as 120,000 BP). Given the dating-tools currently at the disposal of the natural sciences, the saftest bet is to infer that the first human population likely arrived in Australia somewhere bet we en 40,000 and 50,000 yeas ago (www.wikipedia.com/wiki/Australia). One point on which there is no disagreement is that the first settlers most likely arrived during the earth’s last glacial period when cooler temperatures and increased glaciation lent to oceanic recession. Because the lo we red sea level effectively “created great stretches of dry land almost linking Australia to Asia ”, it facilitated the migration of peoples to the Australian continent (Lamb, 112). Admittedly, there do seem “to have remained some open water straits which the people somehow managed to cross”, but the majority most likely traveled by land (112).
The earliest archaeological evidence of Aboriginal occupation of the Sydney area is 15,000 years ago at Emu Plains in Sydney's west. Captain Cook guessed that the population of Aborigines for all of Australia would have been about 150,000. Recent estimates are that the Aboriginal population was about 750,000 in 1788. Governor Phillip guessed that there were no more that 1500 Aborigines living in the Sydney area. The first official census of Aborigines did not take place until 1971.
The early indications with regard to the origin of the Aborigines determined through carbon dating showed traces of their existence as early as 40,000 years ago; probably the earliest arrivals of indigenous Australian human migration came from Indonesia and New Guinea. Australian evidence was found in 1970 near the shoreline of a lake: stone artifacts, shells, bones and disposal of trash were found. Another significant change in the archaeological record after 6000 BC discovered was the introduction of a new stone-age in Australia’s prehistory, stone working consisted of removing flakes and grinding the stone into sharp and precise points to make spears but clubs were the most common weapons used. Men usually fought in duels with heavy-wood swords and large shields. One of the main reasons that the Aborigine’s culture was lost was because they had no specialized structure of government, monarchy, army or any one person in control except head of the house which was limited in control to his immediate family.
Evolution is the complexity of processes by which living organisms established on earth and have been expanded and modified through theorized changes in form and function. Human evolution is the biological and cultural development of the species Homo sapiens sapiens, or human beings. Humans evolved from apes because of their similarities. This can be shown in the evidence that humans had a decrease in the size of the face and teeth that evolved. Early humans are classified in ten different types of families.
Migrants have made a major contribution to shaping modern Australia. People born overseas make up almost one quarter of the total population. About its ethics distribution, aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people totaled 410 003 at the last census, nearly 2.2 per cent of the population. Two thirds of the indigenous people live in towns and cities. Many others live in rural and remote areas, and some still have a broadly traditional way of life.
Dramatic progress came with the evolution of Homo erectus, who exhibited more "human" morphology and life ways. Thus, behavioral, fossil and artifact data couple to give us a glimpse into our evolutionary past. The molecular clock is a method which determines how long ago a certain ancestor diverged into a new species. Up until the 1960's people believed that humans came into existence twenty million years ago, but Alan Wilson and Vincent Sarich came up with an idea to determine how closely related certain animals were and how much of their DNA was shared. They came up with something called DNA hybridization and mistakenly stumbled upon the molecular clock.
This article also discusses the Clovis Culture, linking it to the First Americans through genetics. Feder also talks about the Clovis Culture in his book and points out the debate over its origins. However, it seems through genetic proof that shows a young-boy in the Clovis Culture shared DNA with first Americans this debate will end. In conclusion, it seems very likely that the First Americans did settle Beringia for 10 millennia. This article presents good evidence for the standstill hypothesis while objectively discussing other points of view.
Australia has more than ten thousand primary and secondary schools. In the early 1990s Australian had thirty-nine universities . The way of life in Australia reflects the heritage of British settlers . Australia has many interesting sites like beaches, mountains, deserts , museums, art , music , Film and many other sites . The oldest music of Australia is Aborigines.