The Atmosphere

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Chapter 1.MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE -Moisture content …There is a limit to the amount of water vapor in the air at any given temperature. When this limit is reached saturation occurs and cooling will cause condensation and cloud will form. -Dew point…You can Asses the amount of water in the atmosphere from the dew point. The dew point is the temperature at a given pressure to witch air must be cooled to cause saturation. -Nuclei must be present for condensation or sublimation to occur -Relative humidity…. compares the of water vapor in the air with the amount that it could hold if it were saturated and expressed as a percentage. CHAPTER 2 ATMOSPHERE HOW IT IS HEATED -The atmosphere is composed of the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. -Stratosphere is heated by the ozone absorbing solar ultraviolet radiation. -The troposphere is heated from the earths surface by absorption of terrestrial infrared radiation and by conduction. -The troposphere is the highest over a warm troposphere and lowest over a cold troposphere. -Reflection…Some of the solar energy that strikes the earths’ surface is reflected back out to space and does not heat the surface. The amount of reflection depends on the angle at which the radiation strikes the surface and on the type of surface it strikes. -Convection…the surface layer of the air heated by conduction becomes buoyant and rises up through the atmosphere as the convective current that carries surface heat upward into the atmosphere. -Turbulent Mixing…Wind causes turbulent air motion that mixes the surface layer of air that has been heated by conduction with the unheated air aloft, thus, spreading the heat upwards. -Latent Heat…Water Vapor evaporated into the atmosphere from the earths’ surface is frequently carried aloft. If this should condense, its’ latent heat is released. -Advective Warming…Air being carried from a cold portion of the earths’ surface to a warmer portion by wind will have its lowest levels heated by conduction and the heat will be distributed upward by convection and Turbulent Mixing. -Compression…There are associations when large sections of the earths’ surface atmosphere subside. This would occur in the instance of air flowing down the side of a mountain range. As the air descends, it comes under increased atmospheric pressure and is compressed. This compression heats the subsiding air. -Isotherms are lines drawn on a weather chart which join places of equal temperature. CHAPTER 3 ATMOSPHERIC COOLING -Radiation Cooling…The troposphere is heated from the earths’ surface by terrestrial radiation and conduction. -Wind Effect…on a windy night turbulence mixes the lower few thousand feet of the atmosphere and distributes the cooling effect throughout this layer.

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