Although the Arabian Peninsula is covered in deserts and mountains, such as the Asir Mountains, it served as the birthplace for multiple civilizations. With the use of key geographic features, various groups of people were able the thrive and prevail. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers provided civilizations with a water source and fertile land that allowed for sustenance and an agricultural-based economy. Deserts, like the Syrian Desert, protected the people from invasion and promoted the economy with the use of camel caravans. In addition, the Red Sea encouraged extensive trade with foreign nations which lead to the development of intellectual and prosperous empires, like the Saba Kingdom. The Mediterranean Sea allowed for contact and cultural diffusion between the Arabs, Europeans.
The first humans to settle on the Arabian Peninsula adopted foraging to survive approximately 15-20 thousand years ago. Fifteen thousand years ago, the last ice cap melted and the geography of the peninsula changed drastically (“History”). The climate reshaped from a savannah to a dry and arid desert (“History”). Approximately, 75% of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by deserts such as the Arabian, Syrian, and Rub al-Khali Deserts (“The Islam Project”). Because of the climate change, nomadic tribes dispersed to land rich in nutrients found in the Fertile Crescent and along the border of the peninsula. The Fertile Crescent is located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and provided an excellent water source during the Neolithic Revolution, when nomads settled and discovered agriculture (“The Islam Project”). However, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers run parallel to one another and are known to flood unpredictably causing devastation among to settle...
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