Each group denied the existence over the other and so ensued the struggle over controlling the same territory. Although the Arab-Israeli Wars brought drastic changes to the Arab nations by dispelling the idea of Arab unity, it had the most significant effect on Israel , because it turned Israel into a powerful nation and a force to be reckoned with by the surrounding Arab nations in the Middle East. Before the war of 1967, Israel was a small territory surrounded by members of the Arab League who backed the destroyed country of Palestine. These Arab nations did not recognize Israel as a nation in the Middle East , because they did not believe that Zionism could be used as nationalist movement . They saw the Zionists as Europeans and members of the Western world who were not Arab and did not have attachment to the territory.
Europe was an important factor in the issue until riots broke out in Alexandria, due to the 'Eastern Question’ as Britain had to court them untill reports came back of Europeans being killed. It is unlikely that Britain feared any other countries invading Egypt other than France as they would have the same problem that Britain had with the ‘Eastern Question’. Furthermore, the other European powers did not have the same economic investment in Egypt and the Suez Canal that Britain and France had, therefore, they did not have motive or the excuse to interfere in the uprising. After France pulled out of the invasion, due to its own concerns with islamic militants, the extent to which the European powers influenced the British occupation of Egypt was minimal.
One reason why Cuba has turned to Russia is because the US had cut off their oil supplies and imposed an economic embargo on the island because of the naturalization of US owned companies and citizens by the Cuban government. This calls for a massive oil shipment from the Soviets but unfortunately, Russia was unable to handle such a demand because of their limited overseas shipping capabilities. Subsequently, Russia puts an order for extra oil tankers from Italy, a capitalist country. When Italy agrees to the business proposition, the US is infuriated that another capitalist country was willing to help a communist country. Italy saw it as nothing more than an opportunity to make extra money, regardless of opposing economic systems.
After Britain backed down with angry Jews, the UN stepped in to attempt to control the situation with a compromise. They introduced a Palestine partition to keep peace. In my opinion this was a very naive action because previous events had shown that many Arabs and Israelis had an 'all or nothing' view on the conflict and were not willing to compromise. Predictably, the division didn't work because the Jews provocatively called their part of the division Israel. Because of this the Arabs attacked but were defeated and the Jews ended up gaining more land and many Palestinian refugees.
This was seemingly overlooked by the rest of the world because most nations didn't want to see the Ayatollah's Islamic revolution rise. Iraq often obtained foreign arms support from other nations because of this. It wasn't until the invasion of Kuwait that the rest of the world seemed to realize the danger that Iraq posed to its own people and to the Arab states surrounding it. Through poor planning, Saddam Hussein made three major mistakes that enabled an easy defeat of the Iraqis. The first mistake was that he captured all of Kuwait at the same time, instead of leaving it as a border dispute.
Even though the wars were fuelled by the superpower interests, the large amount of Arab Nationalism also led to the wars against Israel, from 1948 till 1978. The 1948 War of Liberation was the first war that sparked off the Middle East conflicts, and created a foundation for numerous other wars to follow. This Middle-East conflict did eventually get involved within the global cold War, however it was far different, a... ... middle of paper ... ... also due to the recurring sense of Arab Nationalism that in fact fuelled the Middle-East Conflicts. Thus, it could be shown that the Middle-East conflict in fact was fuelled by both Superpower interests as well as concerns, in the region. The USA and USSR were both interested in increasing their individual spheres of influence in the region, in order to gain a bigger foothold in the Middle-East, as well as in turn possibly gaining the main resource of Oil.
Nasser was seen as a nationalist who was determined to rid Egypt of foreign influence and make Egypt the Arab world's leading state. He had tried to buy arms from the West but eventually had to buy them from Czechoslovakia and western powers were concerned that Nasser was leading Egypt towards communism. His seizure of the Suez Canal was justified in his mind by the refusal of Britain and US to finance his ambitious project to build the Aswan Dam across the Nile. In Source A, Eden says Nasser is "not a man who can be trusted", and also "we all know this is how dictators behave and we all remember the cost of giving in to Hitler". This shows that Eden cannot help
America was afraid of spreading of communism because of that President Harry S. Truman asked military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey and established a doctrine named as the Truman Doctrine that would guide U.S. diplomacy for the next forty years. The United States had also been following events in Turkey. The weak government of Turkey faced Soviet pressure to share control of the strategic Dardanelle Straits. Also Turkey could prevent the expansion of Soviet Union to the Mediterranean and Middle East and it could be a set for the Soviet Union in a probable war. Also Turkey had an important geopolitical position for USA, Turkey could provide an important geopolitical advantage for USA in a war with Soviet Union.
Secondly, the emergence of the new Israeli state in 1948 further deepened U.S. policy and involvement in the region while also creating friction between the U.S. and Arab states which were becoming increasingly suspicious of U.S.- Israel ties. A third goal was the importance of Middle East oil, which made up a great portion of the world’s reserves. The U.S. recognized its importance especially after seeing the economic implications of WWII. Although all of these goals have had significant roles in U.S. relations with the Middle East, perhaps one of the biggest ones has been U.S. policy towards containing communism as well as Arab nationalism in the region. An example of how policy has come into play is during the American-Syrian crisis of 1957.
How did the Suez Crisis Impact Britain’s Status as an Imperial World Power? The Suez Crisis began on 29 October 1956 when Israel invaded the Sinai-Peninsula of Egypt (“Timeline: The Suez Crisis). Tension had been building up between Egypt and Israel because Egypt’s president Nasser had taken control of the Suez Canal and blocked the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. This angered not only Israel, but also Britain and France because they needed access to the Suez Canal to trade and acquire Persian Gulf oil. As a result, these three countries united to invade Egypt and take down Nasser from power to let Britain and France gain control of the canal once again (Derek).