Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. Nii, H. Penny. Expert Systems Building Tools: Definitions. 1993. http://itri.loyola.edu/kb/c3_s2.htm. Patterson, Dan W. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems. 1990.
These functions are often taken for granted as part of human existence. Yet, when thoroughly investigated, these inner-workings of the human brain reveal patterns, methods, and, in general, a science behind the rather ethereal term “intelligence”. For this reason, cognitive psychology is of great interest to researchers in the field of artificial intelligence. If intelligence can be identified in human cognition, then there is a valid chance that that same intelligence can be transferred and re-created in a programmed computer. The development of cognitive psychology has lead to related fields of cognitive neurology, or cognitive neuro-psychology, wherein neurologists study the brain biology behind these cognitive human functions.
The hand book of brain theories and neural networks. Cambridge, MA: MIT press. Lusebrink, V. (1990). Imagery and visual expression in therapy. New York: Plenum press.
In B. Nardi (Ed. ), Context and consciousness: activity theory and human-computer interaction. (17-44). Cambridge, MA: MIT press. Kuutti, K. (1991).
Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic in C/C++. New York: Welstead, 1994. Brody, Herb. "Computers That Learn by Doing." Technology Review August 1990: 42-49.
Mitchell, Melanie, "An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms," (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1996). 5. Michalewicz, Zbigniew, "Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures = Evolution Programs, Second, Extended Edition" (Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994), pp. 1 - 91.
Collins, A., Brown, J.S., & Newman, S.E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L.B. Resnick (Ed.
5. Avron Barr., Edward A. Feigenbaum "The Handbook of Artificial intelligence" William Kaufmann, Inc., 1981. 6. Sandra Carberry, "Plan recognition natural language dialogue", The MIT Press, 1990
This paper will: define AI, discuss positives and negatives involved with implementing AI systems, explore several types of different ways AI equipped systems are tested, and venture into the current stage of AI systems primarily IBM’s Watson project. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Defined Artificial intelligence (AI) can simply be defined as “the application of human intelligence to computers” (Shelly & Vermaat 2010). John McCarthy, a professor at Stanford University in the Computer Science Department describes AI as, “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. The similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable” (McCarthy 2007). The book Management Information Systems, written by Kenneth Laudon and Jane Laudon (2012) describes AI as, “technology, which consists of computer-based systems (both hardware and software) that attempt to emulate human behavior” (Laudon & Laudon, 2012, p. 457).
Alpaydin, E. (2004). Introduction to Machine Learning. Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press. Taiwo Oladipupo Ayodele (2010). Types of Machine Learning Algorithms, New Advances in Machine Learning, Yagang Zhang (Ed.