Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing, 2003. Print 3. Shippey, Tom. J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century.
eds. Gerald Graff, James Phelan. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004. 456-66.
The most accepted official start of the Viking Age is recorded to have begun on June 8th, 793 AD when Norse raiders landed on the island of Lindisfarne and attacked the Christian Monastery located there, killing the monks and seizing the valuables. Viking raids by op... ... middle of paper ... ...This left Alfred in command and the West Saxon and Viking armies met and the battle itself lasted all day. Bagsecg was killed along with his five Danish Jarls. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle King Bagsecg was slain by a sword while Halfdan fled from the battlefield with the rest of the army back to Reading.
New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999. 51-72. Merriam Webster’s Online Collegiate Dictionary. 2000. Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.
People where not being given religious freedom anywhere in the Roman Empire. Even after the Roman Empire fell lots of the places that had been part of the Empire stayed Christian. For example The Church of England still exist today. In the early 1600’s The Puritans escaped religious persecution and moved to America, but with time they persecuted the Natives for their religious views. In the first century AD the Roman Empire consisted of most of the known world.
Over the course of the next 200 years there were eight more major crusades and two minor ones (Trueman). The Christians who first set out to fight for Jerusalem wore red fabric crosses that earned them the name, Crusaders, from the Latin word crux (Trueman). These Christians were told to “take up their crosses and fight for their Holy Land, Jerusalem” (Alchin). The wars were mostly against the Muslims living in and around Jerusalem, but they also attacked Jews and others who had stolen Christian land or possessions in the past (history.com). The armies marching toward Jerusalem were fairly diverse.
In 897 Alfred the great defeated the vikings living in England. Another important date in England’s history is 1067 when the Tower of London began being structured. In 1154, Henry II became the king. The next king, John was crowned in 1215 and signed the Magna Carta. 1348-49 was a hard time for England because the black death killed one third of the population.
Prince John and his followers make up the Normans, while the Saxons are led by the title character Wilfred of Ivanhoe. The Saxons try to prevent Prince John from stealing the throne. The story occurs during the third crusade, but the feud between the Normans and the Saxons in 1066 well before this time. In 1066 at the Battle of Hastings, the Normans, led by William I, defeated the Saxons and took over control of England. Before this the Saxons had ruled England for 600 years.
2003. Department of Humanities. 12 May. 2005. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/B/hamilton/hamilzz.htm. Harper, John.