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However the main difference between humanistic and psychoanalytic therapies is how they work with client material (Owen, 1999). Humanistic psychology emerged in the 1960’s during the counter culture movement, in response to Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic theory. The humanistic school is based on humanism, “a system of values and beliefs that emphasise enhancing the better qualities of humankind and peoples abilities to develop their human potential” (Nelson-Jones, 2000, p. 2). Broadly stated, people have the ability to guide, regulate and control them provided certain conditions exist (Nelson-Jones,
Although CBT is often referred to as a unitary treatment, it is actually a diverse collection of complex and subtle interventions that must each be mastered and understood from the social learning perspective (Reinecke, Dattilio, & Freeman, 2003). According to Graham (2005), CBT aims to change a patient’s unhealthy behaviour through examining assumptions behind the thought patterns (cognitive restruction) and also through using behaviour therapy techniques. In CBT, therapist and patient work with each other to identify the thoughts that may cause distress, and the therapist employs behavioural therapy techniques to modify the resulting behaviour. It aims to address patients’ certain fundamental core beliefs (schemas) that lead to negative influences on their behaviour and functioning (Rufer et al, 2000). CBT is the treatment option for some mental disorders, such as depression, dissociative identity disorder, eating disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, hypochondriasis, insomnia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder without agoraphobia (Clark, 1986).
My personal theoretical orientation to counseling is Cognitive-Behavioral therapy. Cognitive-Behavioral therapy helps the client to uncover and alter distortions of thought or perceptions which may be causing or prolonging psychological distress. The theoretical foundations of CBT are essentially those of the behavioral and cognitive approaches. CBT leads to a clear, persuasive, and evidence-based description of how normal and abnormal behavior develops and changes (Kramer 293). The term “cognitive-behavioral therapy” or CBT is a term for therapies with many similarities.
“Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Definition and Scientific Foundations.” Handbook of Brief Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (2002). Web. Parrish, Brendt P., Cohen, Lawrence H., Gunthert, Kathleen C., Butler, Andrew C., Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe, Beck, Judith S. “Effects of Cognitive Therapy for Depression on Daily Stress-Related Variables.” Behavior Research and Therapy 47 (2009): 444-448.