Lily Benda CIV 202 Professor Heern 23 April 2014 The Enlightenment, a period marked by significant changes in rational thought, secularism, social equality, individual freedom, right to property, and human rights, occurred during the eighteenth century. The scientific revolution of the seventeenth century brought about the fundamental ideas on which the Enlightenment was based. Trade and science at the time were already spreading but during the Enlightenment era, these ideas started in Europe, spread globally, and became popular. This new transformation of thought and everyday life impacted the world on a global scale by bringing up new ways to make the government more rational. During the eighteenth century, these new ideas on scientific thought, advanced technologies, and new interests in trade-helped spread and impact the Enlightenment globally.
He shows that as a result of all these new ways of thinking more people obtain a new vision to the things around them during the eighteenth century in Britain. Many thinkers, as they would call them, of the enlightenment era expressed “new mental and moral values, new canons of taste, styles of sociability and views of human nature." Which was a remarkable advance from countries like France that were doing through hard times due to its revolution and the conquest of Napoleon, that hadn’t completely finished. Still, in England the issues that the French were struggling about seemed too had vanished; with religious toleration and basic rights that were established by 1689 and the fact that the idea of absolutism died out after Charles I by 1649. Therefore, in Britain the eighteenth century, like so many other centuries, wa... ... middle of paper ... ...Victorian liberalism.
Henry David Thoreau advocated American expression supported by Romantic-transcendentalist theories of organicism articulated by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Nathaniel Hawthorne justified an indigenous romance fiction to plumb the depths of the human heart” (Allison, 1). They believed that a direct connection between the universe and the individual soul existed. Intuition, rather than reason, was regarded as the highest human ability. “Transcendental philosophy was based on the premise that truth is innate in all of creation and that the knowledge of it is intuitive rather than rational” (Wilson, 3).
Kant's Theory of Knowledge and Solipsism In his Critique of Pure Reason Kant set out to establish a theory of human understanding. His approach was to synthesise the opposing views of empiricism and rationalism. He took the empirical principle that 'all our knowledge begins with experience' [p.1] as a foundation of his philosophy, following Locke and Hume. In contrast to them, however, he also included the rationalist view that posits the existence of an apparatus of human understanding that is prior to experience, and is essential in order that we have experience at all. Thus, for Kant, the human mind does not begin simply as a tabula rasa, as supposed by Locke, but must necessarily have an innate structure in order that we may understand the world.
Transcendentalism Transcendentalism was a movement in philosophy, literature, and religion that emerged and was popular in the nineteenth century New England because of a need to redefine man and his place in the world in response to a new and changing society. The industrial revolution, universities, westward expansion, urbanization and immigration all made the life in a city like Boston full of novelty and turbulence. Transcendentalism was a reaction to an impoverishment of religion and mechanization of consciousness of eighteenth century rational doctrines that ceased to be satisfying. After the success of the American Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, an American man emerged confident and energetic. However, with the release of nervous energy, an American was forced to look at a different angle at his place in the world and society.
Eventually there were new thinkers like John Locke and Isaac Newton. These individuals were about reason, logic, and the scientific method. John Locke, as one example, is an enlightenment age thinker and his ideas influenced the Founding Fathers, the ideas of democracy, liberty and free will. The French Revolution is also important, a period of political upheaval that affected France in which s... ... middle of paper ... ...cause it shows the transformation from religious motivations of the Medievalists to earthly thinking by the modern day Europeans. Between 1450 and 1750, political, economic, and artistic changes affected Western Europe.
By the end of the eighteenth century, Enlightenment secularism made profound progress into American thoughts. “…the United States in the nineteenth century was an infant republic swaddled in the rational ideas of the Enlightenment.” (Tindall 492) The American Renaissance changed America with the outbreak of religion, romanticism, and reform. Outbreak of Religion “After the Revolution many Americans assumed that the United States had a mission to provide the world with a shining example of republican virtue, much as Puritan New England had once stood before erring humanity as an example of ideal Christian community.” (Tindall 492) The combination of widespread religious energy and passionate social idealism brought major reform and advances in human rights during the first half of the nineteenth century. Enlightenment rationalism stressed humankind’s essential goodness rather than its wickedness and stimulated a belief in social progress and the assurance of individual perfectibility. After the American Revolution is when the interest in Deism increased.
Plato took it up as a principle of Being. “If the concept represents all the reality of things, the reality must be something in the ideal order, not necessarily in the things themselves, but rather above them, in a world by itself” (Chaput, C. p.2). For the concept,therefore, Plato substitutes the Idea. He completes the work of Socrates by teaching that the objectively real Ideas are the foundation and justification of scientific knowledge. At the same time he has in mind a problem which claimed much attention from pre-Socratic thinkers, the problem of change.
In this essay I will explain Kant's reasoning behind his statement that the only true good, without qualification, is the good will, and consequentially determine whether his idea of good varies from the Platonic ideal of goodness. In Kant's development of his theory he relied upon the faculty of human reason to demonstrate his hypotheses. He begins by inquiring as to the ultimate purpose of human reason. He considers for a moment that man's reason exists to bring happiness, however he quickly nullifies this assumption with a common sense judgment: We find that the more cultivated reason devotes itself to the aim of enjoying life and happiness, the further does man get away from true contentment. .
One of the most profound revivals took place in New York. After the great revival in New York Charles Finney was known ... ... middle of paper ... ...hese workers to fight for their rights. In conclusion, The Second Great Awakening greatly influenced the reforms of the 19th Century and shaped the way our country operates today. Charles Finney helped influence the reforms by his emotional preaching during the revivals during the beginning of the 19th Century. The Revivals helped influence reforms for abolition, women’s rights, in the workplace, and many others throughout America.