Cao, L., Caldeira, K. “Can ocean fertilization mitigate ocean acidification?” Climatic Change. Vol. 99, #1-2, 295-329. Liss, P., Chuck, A., Bakker, D., Turner, S. “Ocean Fertilization with iron: effects on climate and air quality.” Tellus. 2005.
Climate change is arguably one of the most discussed issues in climatic conferences and political debates across the world. Establishment of the fact that global warming is the leading cause of climate change continues to persuade people to find out ways of reducing or mitigating the effects it has on the earth. Global warming occurs naturally, but artificial causes, which are mainly human activities, contribute to this effect. The release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide from human activates has led to a 0.60C rise in global temperatures (Walther et al., 2002). This implies that different life forms are affected in one way or the other given the effect of temperature on life.
These gases absorb and retain heat in a process known as the greenhouse effect. The Planets natural greenhouse effect makes life possible by regulating our temperature. It turns out that adding too much to the greenhouse effect can have horrible consequences on the environment. Each year, five and a half billion tons of carbon is released by burning fossil fuels and of that three billion tons enters the atmosphere. The remaining carbon usually gets absorbed by the oceans.
When we burn fossil fuels, like petroleum and coal we cause the release of gases such as carbon dioxide that drive the greenhouse effect. Another cause is the clearing of forests worldwide is releasing a lot of carbon dioxide. Clearing forests causes many problems. Deforestation and the large release of gases from trees are a huge problem that could be easily slowed. Burning coal also releases gases that help drive global warming.
The Royal Society Weiss, I. M., Tuross, N., Addadi, L., & Weiner, S. (2002). Mollusc larval shell formation: amorphous calcium carbonate is a precursor phase for aragonite. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 293(5), 478-491. Wisshak, M., Schönberg, C.H.L., Form, A. & Freiwald A (2012) Ocean Acidification Accelerates Reef Bioerosion.
Global Warming One of the biggest problems facing the world today is global warming. Global warming has an adverse effect on biodiversity and climatic conditions on earth. Numerous current developments clearly demonstrate that global warming has a direct impact on warming of land, rising sea levels, the melting of ice caps and other major climate changes all over the word. Man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) released in the atmosphere is one of the major factors leading to global warming disaster. Warming of Land One of the major impacts of global warming on earth is the warming of land.
Ocean acidification is defined as “…the perturbation to the ocean carbonate system directly caused by ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere.” (Turley) Overtime, our oceans have become more acidic due to rapidly evolving technology and a growing dependence on fossil fuel. In fact, our “oceans have become 26% more acidic since the start of the Industrial Revolution.” (Cullinane) Unfortunately, this acidity continues to rise and “…the pH of surface oceans…is projected to drop another 0.3–0.4 pH units by the end of this century, [which] has not occurred for more than 20 million years of Earth's history.” (Guinotte) Why our oceans today so acidic and what can we to control these pH levels? Some studies have found “that atmospheric CO2 concentration is approximately 383 parts per million by volume (ppmv), a level not seen in at least 650,000 years, and it is projected to increase by 0.5% per year throughout the 21st century.” (Guinotte) “This is because…the ocean absorbs about a third of fossil fuel emissions, but this amount is likely to increase to 90% in the future.” (Bralower) As a result, “the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing at a rate not seen for 65 million years, with far-reaching implications for marine biodiversity and food security, according to a new United Nations study...” (Knight) “…This change is cause for serious concern [for] many marine organisms…, [because they] may not be able to adapt quickly enough to survive these changes.” (Guinotte) Over the last century, [it is evident that] the current levels are beginning to impact organisms that make their shells out of the minerals aragonite and calcite…” (Bralower) “Coral reef[s] are highly vulnerable to ocean acidific... ... middle of paper ... ...ion-Background." EARTH 103: Earth in the Future.
USA: McGraw-Hill Education. Le Quesne, W. J., & Pinnegar, J. K. (2012). The potential impacts of ocean acidification: scaling from physiology to fisheries. Fish & Fisheries, 13(3), 333-344. Nienhuis, S.; Palmer, A.; Harley, C. (2010).
For the past few hundred thousand years the amount of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have been at natural and comfortable life sustaining levels. But in just the last one hundred or so years, since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the levels of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide, have gone through the roof. Global warming can, and will, if not stopped, have devastating effects on our planet; possibilities include rising temperatures, droughts, mass extinctions and much more. Humans are having a strong, negative, impact on the environment. The “greenhouse effect” is the most prominent cause for the rise of global temperatures.
How does Greenhouse effect impact climate change? Kenneth Hare reviews the scientific evidence on the greenhouse effect and explained that warming on global and increased greenhouse gases is the main issue that impact climate change. Human activity is the one who causes the greenhouse effect. The natural greenhouse effect is benefit to our world and become probable to making life on earth, but the temperature is very high nowadays that harm human, plant, and animal life. For example, the natural resource such as petrol for vehicles and electricity for our necessary needs will produce more than billions of carbon to the atmosphere every year that cause climate change every day in our earth.