Lessons from Pan Am 103 and the Tokyo Subway
ABSTRACT: Terrorists were very active long before September 11. This essay reviews the 1988 downing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland and the March 1995 gas attack in the Tokyo subway. The results of these terrorist acts, who carried them out, how they were carried out, and what can be done in the future to prevent such incidents from happening again are all investigated.
On December 21, 1988 the world was shocked as a Boeing 747 Pan American Airlines flight from London's Heathrow Airport to New York City crashed in a fiery ball due to a terrorist-placed bomb in the forward luggage compartment. After the explosion the plane proceeded to break up into three different parts. The wings broke off separately, as did the main fuselage, and the first-class/cockpit area. All 259 people on-board, from twenty-one different countries, died, as well as eleven people of the town of Lockerbie, Scotland, where the plane was downed.
In a remarkably short amount of time after the crash hundreds of people were on the scene doing the initial investigative work that would eventually lead to finding the crash's cause as well as the perpetrators of the offense. Over one thousand police officers were dispensed on to the scene, over six hundred military personnel, morticians from the Royal Air Force, and teams of investigators from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Transportation Safety Board, the U.S. State Department, the Federal Aviation Agency, the Boeing Company, and Pratt and Whitney. These people started surveying a land area that was seemingly too large to negotiate, 845 square miles. The United States also moved some of their extremely sophisticated spy satellites over southern Scotland to give the investigating teams high-resolution reconnaissance photographs of the area being searched.
The investigators were able to figure out fairly quickly that what brought down Flight 103 was a bomb, as it had all of the tell-tale signs, including no emergency or distress calls prior to the crash. The bomb had been concealed inside a Toshiba radio, which was placed inside a hard-sided Samsonite suitcase that had been designated as an unaccompanied bag. The suitcase had been transferred from an Air Malta feeder flight out of Valletta.
By June of 1990, six months after the
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"An individual has not started living until he can rise above the narrow confines of his individualistic concerns to the broader concerns of all humanity." (S. King 17) These are the words made famous by a man who was one of the greatest civil rights leaders of our time.
Martin Luther King is recognized by millions of people as a great leader and he is an inspiring man in our history. Still in this day Martin Luther King is one of the most influential heroes in society. He helped African Americans obtain their rights and liberties. Martin Luther King Jr, was one of the greatest encouraging leaders in the history of our nation. Sometimes a death threat on the phone would limit his strength but he encourage his dreams to bring segregation to an end. He had courage and was determined to dedicate his life into bringing equality rights to blacks through peaceful marches. He brought an end to segregation by creating events such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott, March of Washington which he delivered his famous speech “I have a dream” and the Selma March which led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
“God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old negro spiritual,’Free at last, free at last, Great God a-mighty , we are free at last’”-Martin Luther King Jr. , this quote means that one day Dr.King wants people to be equal. Martin Luther King Jr. is a hero because he lead the civil rights movement. Martin Luther King Jr. wants people to be treated equally, no matter religion, race, or color and thats why he said the quote from above. Dr.King is a hero because he lead the the civil rights movement and gave the most amazing speech ever (in my opinion) the “I had a dream” speech.
Increase in Presecution of Jews by the Nazi Regime. Response as to why the Nazis persecuted the Jewish community was not simply Hitler's hatred of the Jews but it has its roots in a much. broader grounds of the. German society and long lasting historical opinions.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was perhaps one of the most influential person of our time. As the father of modern civil rights movement, Dr.Martin Luther king, Jr., is recognized around the world as a symbol of freedom and peace. Born January 15, 1929, King was the son of an Atlanta pastor. King accomplished many achievements during his life. He graduated from Morehouse as a minister in 1948 and went on to Crozer Theological seminary in Chester, Pa., where he earned a divinity degree. After that King went on to earn a doctorate in theology from Boston University in 1955. King also achieved the Nobel Peace Prize in December of 1964. He was assassinated on April 4,1968, outside his motel room by James Earl Ray. While his views at the time seemed radical to many, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is remembered and respected today as a martyr of the civil rights movement and an icon of change through nonviolent means.
Martin Luther King Jr. was definitely an influential speaker and writer. He was able to move people with his ideas and words. In his letter from the Birmingham jail he was trying to inform people of the injustices that African Americans were experiencing at this time. His audience was mainly the clergymen of the church. Since most Americans at this time believed that African Americans were uneducated and not on the same level as white Americans, MLK had to prove otherwise. MLK did this by using strong rhetoric in his speeches and letters. Two of the rhetoric styles that I feel was most effective were his use of logic and pathos. MLK knew that if he was going to make an impression on his audience he was going to have to bring his A game.
On January 15th, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia, a very influential mind was born (Marcelo and David B.). This person was Martin Luther King, Jr. As King grew older he began to realize his family's work. They had been part of a long line of pastors at the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta (Nobel Foundation). He began to realize what was going on in his very eventful life and recognized it as segregation.
The investigation led to the arrest of a man that placed a bomb in his mothers’ luggage and was the beneficiary of his mother’s life insurance policy. Another inflight bombing would occur in 1960 where a National Airline’s flight exploded killing all 34 people on board and again in 1962 where a Continental Airline’s flight exploded killing 45 people on board. The increase and frequency of these bombings did not bring a significant change in the screening of passengers and their luggage it would take another fourteen years before the FAA under the control of the Federal Government to pass legislation that allowed for the screening of all passengers and their luggage. The central point that drove the 1974 Air Transportation Security Act was a combination of aircraft bombings and the start of aircraft hijackings. One of the first United States incidents involving a hijacked aircraft took place in Portland, Oregon on a scheduled route to Seattle, Washington in 1971. A man identified only as D.B. Cooper quietly took over control of a TWA Boeing 727 aircraft once it was airborne. He indicated to a flight attendant that he had a bomb in his briefcase and he intended to detonate if his demands were not met. The plane landed safely in Seattle and
A Discussion and Analysis Of some of his Contributions As Well as their Social, Political and Economic Impacts Since the Thirteen Colonies first united, the United States has had one of the strongest economies in the world. Over the years, many theorists have had varying opinions concerning the reason for this nation's strong economic standing. One reason that has often been overlooked is that a great many of this nation's workers have been influenced by the Protestant work ethic. The philosophy behind this work ethic has driven many workers to attain as much as possible at their jobs during their lifetimes. If one man were to be given credit for the development of the Protestant work ethic it would have to be Martin Luther. In the course of the next several pages this researcher will examine the ethic that has had such a great impact on the United State's economy and on the economies of other nations. It has been suggested by such writers as Weber and Smith that the Protestant work ethic first developed around the word "calling." Basically, this term has a religious connotation which is a task set by God. However, gradually this term was expanded to the point where it covered many of man's activities. During the Protestant Reformation, the term "calling" started to take on a new meaning. Fulfilling one's duty in worldly affairs became a task of extreme importance. gradually, fulfilling one's duty was not only important but it became the moral obligation of every individual (the highest form of moral activity). Before the Reformation, the Catholic Church did not believe that everyday world activities had a religious significance. As a result of Luther these world activities were quite important in adhering to God's wishes. Rather than devote one's life to worshipping God through prayer, and instead of sacrificing all worldly goods to follow Christ, the Protestants believed that the task of every person is to fulfill (to the best of his/her ability) their tasks on earth. This unique conception of the word "calling" was developed by Luther during his first active decade as a reformer. At first he believed, like many other theologians, that everyday world activities were activities of the flesh. Although these activities were willed by God, they were nonetheless morally neutral. However, gradually Luther began to protest against ...
Every incidence, of whatever kind, that occurs to a person, a corporation or a country leaves an impact of its kind. The most important thing is the lessons, which the stakeholders concerned learn from that incidence. Bombing incidences are often a result of terror attacks and the lessons or the action plans that ensue from any successful terror attack are not something intelligent minds can underscore (Knowles, 2003). One of the major targets in these bombings and occurrences of a similar kind is the business community. Critical analysis of explosions and bombings is very important to both the security agencies and the businesses. This is primarily because businesses thrive only in secure environment and therefore safety is a priority for any business setting. The World Trade Center (WTC) explosion in 1993 unearthed critical safety issues which any business development plan must observe. However, before exploring these issues, it is important to have a recap of how the incident was.
The Civil Rights Movement is one of the most important events of the history of the United States. Although many people contributed to this movement, Martin Luther King, Jr., is widely regarded as the leader of the movement for racial equality. Growing up in the Deep South, King saw the injustices of segregation first hand. King’s studies of Mahatma Ghandi teachings influenced his views on effective ways of protesting and achieving equality. Martin Luther King’s view on nonviolence and equality and his enormous effect on the citizens of America makes him the most influential person of the twentieth century.
The famous speech of Martin Luther King The famous speech, “ I Have a Dream”, was held in 1963 by a powerful leader of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 60s. He was born January 15, 1929, the son of an Atlanta Pastor. Martin Luther King Jr. always insisted on nonviolent resistance and always tried to persuade others with his nonviolent beliefs. In 1963, King spoke from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial and almost 200,000 people attended his speech. All his listeners were Civil Rights supporters who rallied behind him and the people who watched his appearance on television.
...thin minutes and took the film.” There was barely any debris from the plane. The government stated that all the planes that were hijacked were the same. The engine of the plane that was found at the scene of the Pentagon attack didn't have the same engine as the other planes, with that being said, it could have been a smaller plane since it was a smaller building. There were no aircraft wreckage, wings, tails, luggage, seats, and bodies. The plane that appears to be flown into the Pentagon was said to be Flight 77 especially from the size of it. Flight 77 can be remote-controlled whether with or without guidance. The transponders for all of the planes were turned off. The way the plane made its exit was a perfect circle but that circle didn't match the plane that the American government claimed it to be. The Pentagon also seemed to be rigged with explosives as well.