That is why defensive pessimism is healthy; it prepares people for the challenges and triumphs that come with life. In multiple studies undertaken by Elliot, it was found that a want for achievement and a fear of failure was more prominent for pessimistic people than for optimistic people. From his studies, Elliot concludes that a pessimistic “…individual is anxious about the
Mazhar (2004) describe that the sense of self-esteem is a sense of self, the worth one puts on self and the value one attach to self. In fact, self-esteem is the basic belief about self. Thus, it may be argue that, if one has a positive idea scheme about one’s self, one will have a positive self-esteem. On the other hand, if one views oneself as valueless, one will have a negative self-esteem. Carle Rogers (1959) describe that self -concept has three different mechanism: 1) the outlook you have of yourself (Self-image); 2) how greatly worth you put on yourself (self-esteem or self-worth); and 3) what you desire you were actually similar to (ideal self).
In the context of failure and success, a non-depressed person will generally attribute success to their own efforts (internal) and attribute failure to circumstantial dimensions (external). This correspondence bias serves to maintain and protect self-esteem in a healthy person (Hogg & Vaughan, 2002). A depressed person will make the opposite attributions. Making internal attributions in the event of failure and external attributions in the event of success allows the person to maintain negative perceptions of themselves and the world and allows the continuation of low self-expectations. (Pyszczynski & Greenberg, 1985) The non-depressed student, in the role of actor, is likely to make internal attributions for their success on a paper e.g.
Heavy self-criticism, envy and a pessimistic attitude follow (Kirsh, 2005). Three states of self-esteem are identified: Strong self-esteem is when they have a positive self-image and are secure enough to make decisions and remain unaffected by any adverse scenario that would cause detrimental effects. Vulnerable self-esteem is when there is a positive self-image yet their ability to maintain it is not reliable. People with a vulnerable self-esteem avoid making decisions, blame others when situations were to turn sour to protect their own reputation. People who do not regard themselves as admirable or valuable, defeated and immerse in self-pity, define shattered self-esteem.
Low self-esteem is critical to an individual’s development because it can lead them down a very destructive path full of poor or dangerous choices. On the opposite side of the spectrum, individuals with high self-esteem do not meet all of the criteria as those with low self-esteem. Generally, having high self-esteem sounds like it is the ideal level one would like to be; however, not everyone can see themselves in such an elevated way. McLeod published an article describing those with high and low self-esteem as the following: people with high self-esteem tend to show higher levels of confidence, they focus on constant improvement and growth; those with low
Low levels of self-esteem carry distinctive behaviors and views that can be pervasive and detrimental to someone's overall quality of life. A sufferer of low self-esteem tends to believe he has little value as a person, and these feelings can often lead to social difficulties while high levels of self-esteem are frequently seen as ideal goals for anyone seeking to improve his self-image. A person with high self-esteem tends to learn from past failures without dwelling on them, to connect well with others, and to confidently believe in his own opinions. A healthy level of self-esteem can help significantly in creating a positive outlook on life. Deception on the other hand has been a traditional component on human behavior.
He contends that happiness, after described as moments of rapture transpiring in an existence anxious by insufficient pains, is indeed probable, and should be probable for nearly everybody if educational and communal arrangements were different. The main origins of unhappiness are selfishness and a lack of mental cultivation. Thus, it is fully inside most people's skills to be happy, if their education nurtures the appropriate values of “It is a good if it promotes happiness, but is not a good if it does not advance happiness”.
According to the statistical approach, being happy all the time is seen as the desired and normal behaviour. In other words, it ignores desired levels of the behaviour, or a median value in the scale of normality and abnormality. Due to high levels of some disorders and behaviours in some populations, things like chicken pox, anxiety and depression are statistically ‘normal’, but is this right, or just a fault in the method of the statistical approach? There are also problems with taking averages of behaviours from whole populations and then trying to relate them to specific groups (E.g. ages or genders, or even different countries) because in d... ... middle of paper ... ...ions.
Psychologists say that people who function well in life and generally accepted themselves, have high self-esteem as opposed to those who are not coping well when face personal problems and seek the way out with solutions that are imbued with self-doubt and fear. People of high self-esteem are looking for challenges and new experiences, and set demanding goals for themselves. Achieving these goals works on the way that their self-esteem becomes even greater. In contrast, people with low self-esteem prefer safety and well-known situation, avoiding demanding goals and thus maintain a low self-esteem. The higher self-esteem we have, the more successful we can cope with different requirements - both in private and in the professional sphere.
On the one hand, someone may clearly lack confidence and have a low opinion of themselves, whereas, some people may appear to have confidence but their efforts to take charge and be in control is a cover for their low self esteem. Many of these people do not admit to themselves that they have any problem and continue to aggressively appear full of self esteem. There are many people who have leadership positions who deep down have low self esteem despite pretending to be someone who is in control and who makes decisions confidently. This will lead to a lot of stress and pain as the pretence is covering up the real person inside. You will see the true reality of this kind of person when they face real problems and when things go wrong.