Cacciarelli TV, Green M, Jaffe R, et al. Management of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in pediatric liver transplant recipients receiving primary tacrolimus (FK506) therapy. Transplantation 1998; 66:1047–52.
Therefore the surgery of kidney transplant has evolved from being a risk taking surgery to a surgery with a high chance of success and has helped several patients have an extended lifespan. Kidney transplants have saved countless lives. As kidney transplants are performed to treat kidney disease and kidney failure, but are not always a cure as some forms of kidney disease may return. However a health risk that associated directly with surgery, itself is the rejection of the donor’s organ, to prevent the body from rejecting the donor’s kidney, patients take anti-rejection or immunosuppressant medications to suppress their immune system(Clinic,2016c). In the 1980s patients were given an immunosuppressant called cyclosporine it was an significant breakthrough for preventing rejection after surgery. “for example, in 1986 alone, nearly 9,000 kidney transplants were performed in the United States, with a greater than 85 percent survival rate for the first year” because of taking the immunosuppressant(First successful kidney transplant performed, 1998). Unlike the first successful kidney transplant, the surgery was only performed on family members and the received the organs from living patients, however todays kidney donors don’t have to
However, not all drugs are created equal. The New York Times recently featured an article elucidating that Lithium, the first drug utilized to treat bi-polar disorder, is more conducive to preventing suicide in people who have manic-depressive illness than Depakote, what has become the most commonly prescribed drug (2).. The new study, published in The Journal of the American Medical Association, found that patients taking Depakote were 2.7 times as likely to kill themselves as those taking lithium (2).. Although studies conducted prior to this have concluded that lithium could in fact prevent suicide, this report is the first to compare suicide and attempted suicide rates in lithium and Depakote users (2).
...he illness stop taking their medications. In this case, the individual is feeling more like normal and thus thinks they no longer need to take their prescribed medications. When this happens, symptoms will return, and will often lead to elevated suicide risks for the schizophrenic person.
Yen, E. F., Hardinger, K., Brennan, D. C., Woodward, R. S., Desai, N. M., Crippin, J. S., . . . Schnitzler, M. A. (2004). Cost-Effectiveness of Extending Medicare Coverage of Immunosuppressive Medications to the Life of a Kidney Transplant. American Journal of Transplantation, 4, 1703-1708. Retrieved May 30, 2014
Suppression immunotherapies are used regularly for allergy relief and to aid in the acceptance of new tissue when an organ transplant takes place. Immune suppression works by causing the body to release fewer antibodies to fight off a recognized foreign contaminant. This form of immunotherapy is proved to work best and with fewer side effects if the patient begins treatment early.
(O) Tohen M., Sanger T. M., McElroy S. L., Tollefson G. D., Chengappa K. N., Daniel D. G., Petty F., Centorrino F., Wang R., Grundy S. L., Greaney M. G., Jacobs T. G., David S. R., Toma V. (1999). Olanzapine versus placebo in the treatment of acute mania. Olanzapine HGEH Study Group. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(5): 702-9.
Schizophrenia is sometimes considered the most devastating of the mental illnesses because its onset is early in a patient’s life, and its symptoms can be destructive to the patient and to the patient’s family and friends. Although schizophrenia is usually discussed as if it were a single disease, this diagnostic category can include a variety of disorders that present with somewhat similar behavioral symptoms. Schizophrenia probably comprises a group of disorders with heterogeneous causes and definitely includes patients whose clinical presentations, treatment responses , and courses of illness were varied.
Fundukian, Laurie J., ed. Anti-Rejection Drugs: The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Detroit, MI: Cengage Learning, 2011.
...dation of the psychrity. Clozapine is one of the most effectual antipsychotic in the treatment of schizophrenia. There are evidences suggested that clozapine was associated with reducing suicide rates, persistent symptoms of hostility or violent behaviors in patients with schizophrenia. Lastly, for those schizophrenic patients who having an episode of depression, in spite of the psychotic symptom had reduced by antipsychotic, receive a trial of antidepressant is recommended as well. Few researches had been conducted and concluded that major mood disorder like depression associated with schizophrenia. It means that by having depression, it might increase the risk of for schizophrenia.