Synthesis and Gas Sensing Porperties of SnO2 Nanostructures

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INTRODUCTION

Over the past decade, the study on metal oxide nanostructure materials have attracted much attention because metal oxides are considered to be the most fascinating functional materials and have been widely utilized in various technological applications. For examples they are used as gas sensors, bio-sensors, nanoelectronics, nanogenerators, electrochromic devices, light-emitting diodes, field emitters, supercapacitors and photo-detector. Nanomaterials have mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical, and optical properties different from those of their bulk counterparts due to the enhanced surface-volume ratio and possible quantum confinement effects(Dulce N. Castillo, 2012). The large surface-to-volume ratio of semiconducting metal oxide nanostructures and the congruence of the carrier screening length with their lateral dimensions make them highly sensitive and efficient transducers of surface chemical processes into electrical signals (A. Kolmakov, 2005).
Since nanomaterials offer advantage in large surface to volume ratio, meaning they can provide a much larger surface area than metal oxide thin films, which make them more sensitive for gas sensing. The gas sensing mechanism involves the active gases adsorption on the surfaces of the functional materials which will cause the change in the electrical conductivity. When comparing the metal oxide nanostructures like nanowires with the thin film, nanowires may lead to favourable sensing properties. The short response time and recovery time of the nanowire sensor may be related to the single crystalline character of the nanowires. Because a sputtered film is composed of columnar grains made of fine crystallites, it has narrow voids between columnar grains as well as gr...

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