653 Words3 Pages
History, Science and Technology, Justice, and Environmental Issues of Sweden During the seventh and eighth centuries, the Swedes were merchant seamen well known for their trade. In the ninth century, Nordic Vikings raided and ravaged the European Continent as far as the Black and Caspian Seas. During the 11th and 12th centuries, Sweden slowly became a united Christian kingdom that later included Finland. Queen Margaret of Denmark united all the Nordic lands in the "Kalmar Union" in 1397. Frequent tension within the countries and within the union gradually led to open conflict between the Swedes and the Danes in the 15th century. The union's final disintegration in the early 16th century resulted in a long-lived rivalry between Norway and Denmark on one side and Sweden and Finland on the other. During and after World War I, in which Sweden remained neutral, the nation benefited from the worldwide demand for Swedish steel, ball bearings, wood pulp, and matches. Postwar achievement provided the basis for the social welfare policies characteristic of modern Sweden. Sweden followed a policy of armed impartiality during World War II and currently remains independent. Sweden became a member of the European Union in 1995. Many of Sweden’s science and technology activities are carried out by the Embassy of Sweden’s Science and Technology office. The main mission of the Science and Technology Office is to help cooperation in research and development and other exchange of knowledge between Sweden and Japan. This is done by telling decision-makers in Sweden about developments in Japan, and by arranging study visits, workshops and other events. The office preserves widespread contact networks in Sweden and Japan, mainly with key persons and organizations involved in research and innovation in government, academia, and industry. Most of the activities of the Science and Technology Office are carried out within the framework of “programs” operated in close partnership with, and financed by, Swedish government agencies and other organizations with responsibilities in the particular area covered by a program. Current programs cover the following areas: (1) Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), (2) Life Sciences and Bio-industry, (3) Sustainable Development, and (4) Overall Development of Japanese Science and Technology Policy and Innovation System. Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. According to the Swedish Constitution, all public power derives from the people. Sweden's head of state, the King, has only ceremonial functions. The top branch of the national government is the Parliament, which has 349 members in one chamber.

More about Sweden

Open Document