Wiebe E Bijker, T. P. (1987). The Social Construction of Technological Systems. London: The MIT Press.
Science can be defined as a concept of observations and inquiries that the whole world applies depending on certain natural laws which are discovered and tested. Some academics come across ideas which have existed, they explore and test these ideas using scientific methods. These methods are based on observations or experience which compel academics into hypothesis testing (Comer, Gould, & Furnham, 2013). It is suggested that science has key
In today’s world, technology is transforming conventional methods of every facet of human life; from the way that we grow our crops, to the way that we communicate with one another. Technology has opened our minds to new ideas and even to new places, such as space exploration. Simply put, technology means applying science toward an objective and the outcome is advancement in modes of construction.
The polanyian perspective is it reveals an aspect of reality, a reality largely hidden to us, and existing therefore independently of our knowing it. The author is demonstrating that science is not that much different that religion and that both have a faith type base. He explains that both sciences and religion have a dogmatic set of core commitments that ...
Michael Polanyi affirms the irreducible involvement of personal commitment in the perception and understanding of transpersonal reality. He is against the representational expressivist theory of language. According to his theory all assertion of fact expresses beliefs, and are essentially accompanied by feelings of satisfaction or of desire. The act of knowing includes an appraisal, a personal coefficient that shapes all factual knowledge. Polanyi emphasizes the role of the activity of the knower in the formation of knowledge and also is aware of their variability while insisting that we aim at truth 'with universal intent' 'although we can never quite get there'. His book Personal Knowledge should help to restore science to its rightful place in an integrated culture as part of the whole person's continuing endeavor to make sense of the totality of his experience. 'True' means something different in different societies.
In the 1980s, the hitherto-dominant normative-prescriptive conception of philosophy of science became the subject of a debate which continues to the present time. Some philosophers of science suggested that the proper aim of the discipline is the description of scientific evaluative practice.
Generally, science is a hotly discussed and vehemently debated topic. It is difficult to achieve consensus in science, considering the fact that ideas are diverse about even science definition, leave alone the true interpretations and meaning of scientific experiments, philosophies and discoveries. However, these arguments, disagreements as well as continuous trials to find a better reasoning, logic and explanation are exactly what have always been driving science progress from art to art form. It is worth noting that, in Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction, the Author-Samir Okasha explore various way of looking at science via the prism of life by citing a variety of scientific experiments, and providing examples from history of science.
This essay aims to discuss the problems of the common view of science which was presented by Alan Chalmers by Popperian's view and my personal opinions. Chalmers gives his opinion about what science is and the judgment will be made in this essay through the Popperian hypothetico-deductive and my arguments will be presented in this essay. Popperian is an important philosopher of science who developed hypothetico-deductive method, which is also known as falsificationism. In my opinion, I disagree Chlamer points of view of science and this will be present in essay later. I will restrict my arguments into three parts due to the word limitation. Three aspects will be discussed in this essay: justifying the view through the Popper's view, my agreement about the Popper's objections and additional personal opinions.
After considering all the described points in this paper, it can be rightly said that there is a considerable difference between science and other types of knowledge.
Pinch, T. & Bijker, W. (1987). The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts: Or how the Sociology of Science and the Sociology of Technology Might Benefit Each Other. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Science has played a significant role in the development of society. Other world views, such as Hum...
As a Professor in the Social Studies of Science and Technology in the Program in Science Turkle releases this article talking about a currently
According to the article “is scientific progress inevitable?” can understand that advances in technology are in the order of nature and advances in technology are regular. This article may be expanded many ideas about the progress and development of technology. Technology must be progress, but the progress of scientific discovery may not be able to promote social development in a short time. Although the power source of social development is the advancement of technology, but technology discovery just a part of system and it is an integral part, but only "essential" conditions, rather than "full" condition. Anyway, the article has made the readers to
By the definition, science is the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment (Oxford dictionary). This crude definition is elaborated further by a world-famous sociologist Anthony Giddens as ‘the scientific study of human social life, groups, and societies. It is dazzling and compelling enterprise, as its subject matter is our own behavior as social beings. The scope of sociological study is extremely wide, ranging from the analysis of passing encounters between individuals on the street to the investigation of global social processes such as the rise of Islamic fundamentalism.’ (Giddens: 2006)