In the nineteenth century the American Indians were put through many obstacles to survive on the modern life. The people of the U.S. acted to abolish the Indian population, take away culture and everyday life. The Indians were different from what whites wanted them to be like, they had different techniques and ways of life. Indians were able to keep the Indian name from vanishing by surviving through the new modern learnings and carry out the American Indian blood by expanding and adapting to their new world.
In 1838-39 U.S. troops, ordered by the state of Georgia, expelled the Cherokees from their homeland in the Southeast and removed them to the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. The demand for fruitful land during the rapid growth in the southeast led to the removal of the Cherokees along with the discovery of gold on Cherokee land. There was a racial prejudice towards the Native Americans from the white southerners. Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837) during this time. During his presidency many legal issues came about when he did not follow the treaties made by the National Government with the Cherokee Nations.
depicting the life of the Cherokee people; specifically the “Treaty party” and John Ross whom are most involved in the fight for territory against the white settlers, and the events leading to their fall as a Cherokee nation, written by John Ehle. Ehle explains how the Cherokee people were forced to adopt European-American ways; through hunting, education, language, religion and jobs; the Whites were eager to turn the Cherokees into more “civilized” people, and eventually leading to them taking more and more of their land and resources. Ehle examines the events leading up to the forcible removal of the Cherokee nation; examining the Georgia gold strike, the terms of the “Treaty of Echota” and the eventual forcible removal of the nation.
Muhammad Ali once said, “He who is not courageous enough to take risks will accomplish nothing in life.” Sherman Alexie makes this a big point in his novel The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian. This book, Arnold “Junior” Spirit is faced with the decision of whether he should trade his familiar school life on an Indian Reservation for a slightly better education at an all-White school in a small town named Reardan. This is his only way to achieve a better future. Throughout the novel Junior has to fight against criticism for acting differently in order to protect his mindset. Outside forces such as discrimination of race or social status deeply impact one’s hopes, dreams and self-esteem.
There is the Indian way and there is the white way. In “The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian” by Alexie Sherman, the Spokane Indians in Wellpinit, WA demonstrate the Indian way and those twenty-two miles away at Reardan high school demonstrate the white way. Arnold Spirit, the fourteen-year-old who lives on the Spokane reservation, writes about his exposure in both settings when he decides to go to Reardan high school. Arnold’s diary allows the reader to identify the differences in behavior between the two societies, as well as the environments the youth are being brought up in. The Spokane Indians approach threats in a more violent manner, as a result of their oppression. As opposed to those at Reardan high school, whom posses a more civil approach due to their privilege.
While Rowlandson’s narrative was highly read throughout the American colonies, the narrative of the Native became her description of them. Rowlandson’s words are considered to reflect “triumph of faith over adversity,” while at the same time solidifying the preconceived notion that Natives are uncivilized savages. This narrative gives rise to her credibility as an author, and at the same time ensures that the voice of women moved further from the realm of the oppressed, and into that of the oppressor. My second insight was how stereotypes and misconceptions in literature are a powerful means by which to change the fate of an entire
“’Indians’: Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History';, an essay written by Jane Tompkins, a professor of English at Duke University, outlines Tompkins dissatisfaction on how American Indians are portrayed throughout history. As children, we are taught that in “1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue';, and that Peter Minuet bought all of Manhattan Island from the Indians for only twenty-four dollars worth of trinkets. In high school, we were taught that in World War II, the Germans were all heartless savages, and that the best course of action to end the war was to use the atomic bomb on Japan. It is seen that “the victor writes the history books.'; In other words, the dominant cultures and societies that conquer and overshadow lesser societies have the privilege of writing history. For example, if Germany won World War II, would the history books have mentioned the holocaust of the Jews? The problem with history is that history is defined in terms of the author’s point of view. There is no scientific process by which history is written; therefore we must discern what is the real truth versus someone’s biases and point of view. “The problem is that if all accounts of events are determined through and through by the observer’s frame of reference, then one will never know, in any given case, what really happened,'; (Tompkins, 410).
The Cherokee Indians are a tribe from the southeastern area of what is now the United States. The Cherokees were identified as one of the most socially and culturally advanced Native American tribes. Sometime in the sixteenth century the European explorers came in contact with the Cherokee Indians, and the Indians learned things from the Europeans to better their cultural elements. Their society and culture developed more. The Native Americans managed to shape a government and society matching most civilized cultures of the day.
The Cherokee rejects the idea of moving beyond the Mississippi River for many reasons. Members of the tribe refuse to leave the land because they do not want to lose their land of their ancestors to the whites and go west. Particularly, the Cherokee “had made great efforts to become citizens, establishing schools, adopting a constitution modeled on that of the United States, and becoming successful farmers, many of whom owned slaves” (201), they do not see themselves as “savages” because they are gradually civilized like the whites. In addition, the new land which the Cherokee are relocated is strange to them. There are also other Indian tribes already live in the land. Therefore, the Cherokee would be considered as intruders if they moved
It was approaching dusk as the conspicuous line of dark vans entered the reservation. These vehicles served the purpose of furnishing transportation for about 30 members of a Cleveland area youth group, whose mission was “to bring good news to the badlands';. In short, the group was ministering to the Indian children of the Pine Ridge Reservation, which was in close vicinity to the natural wonder found in the foothills of “the badlands';. The trip became a tradition for my church and I traveled there on three separate occasions. Each year, the team received a welcoming that could be described as anything but inviting. In fact, the first year the trip fell on the Fourth of July and as we drove in, our vehicles were bombarded with fireworks. I could never really grasp why we were so despised. After all, our intentions were commendable. The matter became clearer after I read Zitkala-sa’s “American Indian Stories';. Within this text, a Native American expresses her beliefs that actions similar to ours serve merely in altering culture.
The Cherokee tribes inhabited the Southeastern states including the Carolinas and Georgia. As with most of the Indian tribes of America, the Cherokee hunted the animals and farmed the crops of their territory, however corn was their most heavily honored crop. The Cherokee were matriarchal, meaning the children gained membership from their mother’s clan instead of their fathers. Developing advancements unbeknownst to most tribes at the time “The Cherokee developed an 80-symbol language and used the printing press to teach it to nearly all of its members by 1810.” (learner.org). In the tribe, the men spent most time away from the village hunting, while the women took after the children and tended the crops. The women of the Cherokee
the relationship between Christopher Columbus and the Indians. This history lesson tells the children of the dependence each group had on each other. But as the children mature, the relations between the two groups began to change with their age. So the story that the teenagers are told is a gruesome one of savage killings and lying. When the teenagers learn of this, they themselves might want to do research on this subject to find out the truth. But as one searches, one finds the inconsistency between the research books. So the question is, who is telling the truth? Mary Louise Pratt and Jane Tompkins probe these difficulties of the reading and writing of history, specifically at the problems of bias and contemplative historical accounts. In “Art of the Contact Zone,” Pratt explores the issue of whose version of history gets favored and whose gets limited by analyzing the circumstances surrounding Guaman Poma’s and de la Vega’s letter to the King of Spain. In “‘Indians’: Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History,” Tompkins investigates how history is shaped in accordance to personal biases and cultural conditions of historians by questioning different writings about Native Americans. Each author comes to the conclusion between history and
In her book American Indian Stories, Zitkala-Sa's central role as both an activist and writer surfaces, which uniquely combines autobiography and fiction and represents an attempt to merge cultural critique with aesthetic form, especially surrounding such fundamental matters as religion. In the tradition of sentimental, autobiographical fiction, this work addresses keen issues for American Indians' dilemmas with assimilation. In Parts IV and V of "School Days," for example, she vividly describes a little girl's nightmares of paleface devils and delineates her bitterness when her classmate died with an open Bible on her bed. In this groundbreaking scene, she inverts the allegation of Indian religion as superstition by labeling Christianity.
Modern day Native American are widely known as stewards of the environment who fight for conservation and environmental issues. The position of the many Native American as environmentalists and conservationists is justified based on the perception that before European colonists arrived in the Americas, Native Americans had little to no effect on their environment as they lived in harmony with nature. This idea is challenged by Shepard Krech III in his work, The Ecological Indian. In The Ecological Indian, Krech argues that this image of the noble savage was an invented tradition that began in the early 1970’s, and that attempts to humanize Native Americans by attempting to portray them as they really were. Krech’s arguments are criticized by Darren J Ranco who in his response, claims that Krech fails to analyze the current state of Native American affairs, falls into the ‘trap’ of invented tradition, and accuses Krech of diminishing the power and influence of Native Americans in politics. This essay examines both arguments, but ultimately finds Krech to be more convincing as Krech’s
According to historians, ancient people traveled across a land bridge in Alaska and moved down the continent of North America, eventually making it into South America. We refer to these people as Native Americans or Indians. The number of tribes that existed before the European settlement of the New World could have been in the thousands. Many are tribes that we have studied in social studies classes in grade school. Tribes such as the Shawnee, Apache, Shoshoni, Comanche, Souix, Iroquois, Navajo, and the Mandan are just a few of them. But I think all of us have heard about a group of Indians from the Southeastern United States called the Cherokee Indians. The Cherokee Indians and