Summary Of Bronfenbrenner's Bio Ecological Systems Theory

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Urie Bronfenbrenner’s bio ecological systems theory is a framework which focuses on the different factors that may influence development. Bronfenbrenner realises that humans create the environments that shape their personal development, and development occurs in social context, which can also change development. (Upton 2011) Bronfenbrenner believed that different aspects of the environment can have different influences on children and their development, he labelled these as the ‘microsystem,’ the ‘mesosystem,’ the ‘exosystem’ and the ‘macrosystem.’ (Upton 2011) The microsystem is the immediate environment that we live in and the social groups and immediate relationships we interact with. This includes family and friends, school and the workplace…show more content…
The first level of needs is the biological and psychological, this level includes basic needs for food, water, shelter, sleep etc. Once this lowest level of needs has been met, it is only then that the individual can move on to the following stages (Chapman 2001-4). The second stage is safety needs, this includes the need for protection and security, stability and law etc. and once the needs in this stage are met, the individual can move onto the third stage of belongingness and love, the individual needs family, and affection and positive relationships for them to feel a sense of belonging and can move on to the 4th stage, self-esteem, and achievements, independence and responsibility. If the needs in the 3rd stage are not met, and the child does not feel a sense of belonging they will therefore struggle to gain self-esteem and cannot move onto the 4th stage. Once all of the needs in each of the first 4 stages are met the child can move onto the final level of self-actualisation in which they realise their potential and seek personal growth (Chapman 2001-4). Chapman also discusses that if our lower, most basic needs are not met we are no longer concerned about the maintenance of our higher needs and do not strive to meet them. McLeod 2007 also backs this up by explaining that once the basic needs in the first stage are met, humans will be motivated to meet the needs in the next stage, and as the individual gets older, and the longer the needs are denied from them, the more motivated they will be to get them. An example given by McLeod states that the longer a person goes without food, the hungrier they will become and they will then be more motivated to get food. According to McLeod, every person is capable of achieving each need, although some people fail to reach the needs at the top of the hierarchy as lower level needs
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