On the other hand is Elsworth M. Toohey, a humanitarian, whose goal is to see others suffer so that in providing help, he might be seen as virtuous (680). These men serve as foils for each other. The idea behind Howard Roark is illustrated by Ayn Rand in her philosophy called “Objectivism” and the idea behind Ellsworth Toohey is the “second-hand.” The book wields together the concepts of selfishness, selflessness, and heroism. Objectivism is the “concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute.”(The Essentials of Objectivism) On the contrary, “second-hand” is the term used by Ayn Rand to describe people who have no self, no ego, and basically live for others. In other words, “second-handers” are altruists (605-606).
Furthermore, she delineates egoism as the theory, which holds that "it is each person’s responsibility to choose his goals and values by use of his independent reasoning mind; and that it is his right to pursue these goals in quest of his own selfish, personal happiness." Accordingly, she insists that ego is what every man needs in pursuit of his happiness. In her bestselling book, The Fountainhead, Rand demonstrates her ideas of altruists and egoists through the characters Catherine Halsey, Peter Keating, Ellsworth Toohey, and Howard Roark. Through the illustration of their lives, Ayn Rand creates an enthralling case for the inferiority of altruists and the superiority of egoists. The main parasitical leader of all altruists—individuals who sacrifice their whole life for others—is Ellsworth Toohey, a columnist for The New York Banner—a major news paper company owned by Gail Wynand.
In John Stuart Mill’s work Utilitarianism, Mill is trying to provide proof for his moral theory utilitarianism and disprove all the objections against it. Mill defines utilitarianism as a theory based on the principle that "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness" (Ch. II, page 7). He calls this the “greatest happiness principle. Mill says, “No reason can be given why the general happiness is desirable, except the fact that each person desires his own happiness, so far as he thinks it is attainable.
The Ideal Man Defined in The Fountainhead Ayn Rand has based her novel, The Fountainhead on the projection of an ideal man. It is the portrayal of a moral ideal as an end in itself. She has placed 'man-worship' above all and has brought out the significance of the heroic in man. Man-worshippers are those who see man's highest potential and strive to actualize it. They are dedicated to the exaltation of man's self esteem and the sacredness of his happiness on earth.
Unlike Kantian, Aristotle states that there are many ways for a man to utilize virtue within his life to achieve the highest good. There are various happiness but duty and standard are the same for all thing. Thus, Kant’s ethical theory is more compelling than Aristotle’s ethics. Kant is implying that one has to treat someone different as a... ... middle of paper ... ...rtuously basing on the plethora ways. Kant was a believer that only through utilizing the good will has the capacity of completing the categorical duties that make man to be good.
Therefore, the gold standard for Objectivist ethics is life—anything that extends it is “good” and anything that threatens it is “bad.” She goes on to further extrapolate that the way man accomplishes the task of living and creating his own morals in through the processes of reason, purpose, and self-esteem. “Productive work is the central purpose of a rational man’s life…Rationality is man’s basic virtue, the source of all his other virtues.” Also central to her ethical theory is the virtue of justice, “one must never seek or grant the unearned and undeserved, either in matter nor in spirit.” Additionally, she believes that the creation of happiness, “does not work for your own destruction.” With that in mind, we can now turn to her theory of capita... ... middle of paper ... ...s that such public needs should be paid for by voluntary contributions from citizens. She views taxation as a way to fund public works a violation of private property rights that amounts to little more than theft. In conclusion, both Smith and Rand would agree that the market should be free to operate without significant government intervention. However, Smith would support limited regulation and oversight while Rand would oppose any such measures.
Aristotle believes that determining the Good is a part of politics. He believes that politics pursues the highest ends for human existence as a whole, the highest end being happiness. Happiness is the highest end because it is pursued as an end sufficient in itself. A happy person is ide... ... middle of paper ... ...shness and cowardice. Temperance is the mean between self-indulgence and insensibility.
Howard Roark, the hero of the novel, is the embodiment of objective principles. He lives in his 'pinnacle of loneliness' with his own happiness as his only motivation. Neither does he sacrifice himself for others, nor does he sacrifice others to himself, but works for his rational self-interest. Roark reveres his ego, and refuses to be broken down by those who want him to compromise on his integrity. He believes that the motivation to think comes from the ego, as the mind is an attribute to the individual -- there can be no 'collective thought'.
This is because the excellent soul is governed completely by its rational segment, as opposed to its irrational segment, and such governing is achieved only through the cultivating of virtue, both moral, which is habituated, and intellectual, which is learned, which by definition is excellence of the soul. To cultivate moral virtue, one must practice the mean of all emotions, that is, the version of each emotion that is neither in excess nor deficient, as well as the mean of virtuous characteristics, such as generosity. Happiness is the ultimate function of man because it is the highest human good. Every action that humans perform is aimed at achieving an end. One goes to college to gain a degree.
The philosopher Immanuel Kant in “Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals” in his chapter I, brings to us a magnificent explanation about moral philosophy where analyze and critics the conduct, acts of the human beings. Kant states, “Nothing can possibly be convinced in the world, or even out it, which can be called good, without qualification, except a good will”. I agree with this affirmation because everything we do must be doing it by good will. If we do this we reach happiness according with the author in his words, “Thus a good will appears to constitute the indispensable condition even of being worthy of happiness”. Moral duties are universal where each person with morality is obligated to do something moral through their customs, manners and good habits.