Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 49 p. 57. Available from: doi: 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.48.113006.094742. Fraser, S. 2011, The Drug Effect: Health, crime and society, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 19-34. Manderson D. 1995 'Metamorphoses: Clashing Symbols in the Social Construction of Drugs.’ Journal of Drug Issues 25(4): 799-816.
Kakade, M., Duarte, C. S., Liu, X., Fuller, C. J., Drucker, E., Hoven, C. W., & ... Wu, P. (2012). Adolescent Substance Use and Other Illegal Behaviors and Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice System Involvement: Findings From a US National Survey. American Journal Of Public Health, 102(7), 1307-1310. Moore, L. D., & Elkavich, A. (2008).
It’s known as the “feel good hormone” which is why people abuse drugs that increase the release of dopamine. Since life is unpredictable, our brains have evolved the ability to remodel themselves in response to our experiences. The more we practice an activity the more neurons developed in order to fine-tune that activity causing addictive behaviors to be detrimental. Adolescences in particular can be easily influenced to abusing a drug or multiple drugs. I believe this happens because teens often lack education, live in an environment where drugs are readily available, are peer-pressured and the lack of proper growth of the frontal lobe.
2007; Windle 1994). Other results from the studies of bullying victimization, and Alcohol use suggest that experiences of bullying creates an adverse cognitive process that increases the chance that an adolescent will use alcohol/illicit drugs. Using alcohol as a mechanism to deal with undesirable effects is reflective of research done in the past about the cause of adolescent substance use (Sher, Grekin, and Williams 2005). There are other studies that have shown substance use may have a cyclical relation in the ongoing effect of victimization and victimizing. The result is that substance use may facilitate young people that are already having suicidal thoughts to act upon them by decreasing inhibitions and raising destructive behaviors (Gould et al.
Adolescent Substance Use Trends Patterns and trends of substance use among adolescents fluctuates from generation to generation. There are many factors related to the increased risk for substance experimentation. For example, generational substance use, poor parental monitoring, and low academic performance contribute to elevated risk for substance use (Allison, et al., 1999). Substances that have remained on the forefront for adolescent use and abuse include alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana (Hussey, Drinkard, Flannery). Summary of Research Adolescent substance use has many facets including illicit drug use and alcohol and tobacco use.
Juvenile violence and addiction: Tangled roots in childhood trauma. Journal of Social Work Practice in The Addictions, 1(1), 25-40. doi:10.1300/J160v01n01_04 Zimić, J., & Jukić, V. (2012). Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 44(2), 173-185. doi:10.1080/02791072.2012.685408
New York: Basic Books Hall, W. Adverse health effects of cannabis use: what are they and what are their implications for policy? Intro J of drug policy. 2009: 20:458-466 Hawkins, J.D, Catalano, R.F, and Miller, J.Y, (1992). Risk protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin.
Not all of these factors play a part in every adolescent who abuses alcohol, but one of these factors is usually present. Psychological disorders have been found in both American, and Taiwan adolescents who abuse alcohol. The health risks of adolescent alcohol abuse are great. Alcohol affects the physiology of a young person. It disrupts the genetics and hormonal balances that are critical in the early development of youngsters.
The teen years can lead to some memorable years, some positive experiences and some negative. Driving, dating, freedom, and independence are all things that are typically looked forward to in the adolescent years. However, new experiences can come with steep consequences. Substance abuse and addiction dung the adolescent stage poses serious threats to healthy neurological development of the brain. With alarming percentages of adolescents in the United States admitting to substance use in recent years, multiple types of damage has been done to the still developing brains of this population, but active involvement in religion and spirituality is key to the prevention of substance use in this age range.
Drugs, Brains, and Behavior the Science of Addiction. Retrieved from http://www.nida.nih.gov/scienceofaddiction/sciofaddiction.pdf Sanders, B., Lankenau, S. E., Jackson-Bloom, J., & Hathazi, D. (2008). Multiple Drug Use and Polydrug Use Amongst Homeless Traveling Youth. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 7(1), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=15&hid=104&sid=5a5338b2-d34e-4e52-9e55-bdde65b8435a%40sessionmgr111