They explore the methodology behind the ‘project’ of the two continents’ integration processes. In the preface, it mentions how different the text is from separate works of colonialism socially, politically, and economically. Though their work deviates from the traditional sense of writing colonialism, it too only provides a modernist take of the dynamics and not necessarily a shift in fields of scholarship. What makes Hansen and Jonsson’s different is the fact that it’s one of the first its kind to dissect the European Union’s involvement of plans for both the migration of European empires to Africa and vice versa in a transnational aspect. The text respectively covers the grounds as to how Europe transitioned from using aggressive colonial invasion to the effects of integration orchestrated by the EU in the mid-20th
There has been an assumption that Africans cannot develop thriving or even sustainable economies without outside monetary support. After decades of U.S. foreign aid and aid from other countries, many in the developing nations of Africa have not seen the benefits of this economic assistance. This fact has raised questions about the effectiveness of these efforts to improve the economies of Africa. Many believe that such aid has not only been unsupportive of these economies, but instead has actually stunted economic growth. As a case in point, this paper will focus on the experience of the country of Zambia with regard to its foreign aid programs and will cite findings reported in several academic journals and other university publications.
Although such societies could be quite advanced, Europeans considered them to be uncivilized due their lack of hierarchal government. Is... ... middle of paper ... ...influences became more prevalent. Government took many forms and cultural practices diverged greatly across the continent. Some societies were matrilineal; others were patrilineal. To speak of Africans as being a uniform people is incredibly misleading.
Within this continent, there are many different lifestyles, which are lived. Many blame the variety of lifestyles on western influence, but the truth is that different lifestyles began thousands of years before the west had influence on Africa. African’s lifestyles revolve mostly around what is called “triple heritage.” Triple heritage consists of traditional African beliefs, Islam beliefs, and the beliefs of western cultures. Due to different heritages, the African people speak Swahili, Arabic, and English. Today, the people of Africa have little interest in what is going on outside of Africa.
This is because not every myth portrays and explains the same elements. Five myths from throughout Africa will be mentioned throughout this essay. They are from the Boshongo, Mande, Shilluk, Egyptian, and Yoruba peoples. For a brief description of these myths please see the appendix. Please remember that these myths do not represent the beliefs and stories of all of Africa.
Islam did not spread south because of the dense tropical forest that divides Nigeria into north and south. This also caused the two regions to “develop” at different rates because while the south was still alien to Europeans, the north was expanding culturally and economically because of its deep involvement with the trans-Sahara trade routes. The peoples of the south remained untouched by foreigners until the 1470’s when Portuguese explorers, under the inspiration and guidance of Henry the Navigator, showed up and traded spirits, cloth, guns and gunpowder in return for slaves. The Portuguese did not really have any sort of cultural effect on the indigenous people besides the slowly diminishing population. This is because they rarely traveled farther than the coast, if they even left the ships.
An overwhelming majority of African nations has reclaimed their independence from their European mother countries. This did not stop the Europeans from leaving a permanent mark on the continent however. European colonialism has shaped modern-day Africa, a considerable amount for the worse, but also some for the better. Including these positive and negative effects, colonialism has also touched much of Africa’s history and culture especially in recent years. In order to properly understand the effects of colonization, one must look at its history.
This system of government is organized at multiple levels, rather than at one centralized level like in direct rule. At the head of the decentralized government were indigenous people that acted under British command. This gave the illusion that African’s were in total power; however, they still remained inferior to the British in some areas. For example, the indigenous would be in charge of the day-today affairs within the colonies, but would lose power when it came to any external affairs, including taxation and forced labor. These Africans in power were not necessarily a major part of their societies pre-colonization.
While reading this book, I plan to explore my own biases as against what has been written in this book about Africa. The key words that come to my mind while thinking about Africa aren’t very different from those quoted by Curtis’s students. I too think of the place as the native world thanks to Darwin’s theory of evolution and subsequent research work that makes to textbooks and television program. However, it does not resonate with me as much a native land should. I believe that could be because of different physical features Africans have as compared to ordinary Americans.
Many governments throughout the world have been implementing direct or indirect policies or programs ranging from integrated rural-urban development to planned redistribution through resettlement projects. However, most of the population distribution policy in general and migration polices in particular in developing countries has not been successful (Arowolo, 1988:44). The solutions to urban problems depend heavily on effective urban management and sound rural development policies (Cheema, 1993 and UN, 1995). Adequate understanding and knowledge on the causes and consequences of migration could be considered as a prerequisite for the effective urban management and the formulation and implementation of sound rural development policies. In Ethiopia, much has not been done to study the causes and consequences of rural-urban migration.