Stuttering Stages and Treatment Options

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This paper’s main objective is to discuss language and speech research showcases including the theories and types of stuttering and putting special emphasis on treatment options available. One type of stuttering includes metabolic stuttering is developmental stuttering, it has the following options for treatment: Fluency shaping therapy, stuttering modification therapy, electronic fluency devices, ant-stuttering medications, support groups and self-help movement and lastly diaphragmatic breathing (Guitar, 2003). We also have metabolic and acquired stuttering which can be treated by the same methods listed above. Stuttering stages include some primary behaviors, variability, feelings and attitudes. Metabolic stuttering is normally inherited. It is linked to diverse variations in genes regulating lysosomal metabolism (Alm, 2004). Developmental stuttering occurs in early childhood and is bound to extend to adulthood for at least 20% of affected kids. It encompasses syllable repetitions and some behaviors such as tension and avoidance. Acquired stuttering may come up as a result of neurological events such as strokes, head injuries, use of drugs and tumors. Therefore it can be acquired during adulthood. It is normally limited to sound repetitions and some parts of word. Stuttering stages include some primary behaviors which tend to be overt. There are apparent signs of breakdown in speech fluency which includes repetition of words, syllables, prolongation of specific sounds and repeating sounds (Kalinowski, 2006). The difference between these disfluencies and the disfluencies in normal people is that they are bound to last longer, they are produced with strain and more effort and they seem to occur more frequently. In the vari... ... middle of paper ... ... they need through encouraging them and motivating them too. Parents have a task of supporting their children’s speech fluency. They should provide a relaxed home environment that allows kids to speak and avoid negative reactions when the child stutters. Parents should, also refrain from instructing their kids to speak in a particular manner through coercing and punishing them. This demoralizes a child. References Alm, P. (2004). Stuttering and the Basal Gangalia Circuits: A Critical review of Possible RELATIONS. jOURNAL OF cOMMUNICATION dISORDERS , 325-69. Guitar, B. (2003). Stuttering. An intergrated Approach to its Nature and Treatment. . San Diego: Wiliams & Wilkins. Kalinowski, J. &. (2006). Stuttering. San Diego: Plural Publishers. Ward, D. (2006). Stuttering and Cluttering: Frameworks for Understanding Treatment. New York: Psychology Press.

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