Stroke has been implicated as the third leading cause of death1. It’s occurrence increases with age, with two-thirds of stroke victims being over 65 years old2. The elderly population is increasing, with 20% of the U.S. population expected to be over 65 years old by the year 20303. As future dentists, these are the people we will one day be treating in our practices. Therefore, it is important for us to be able to properly prevent, recognize, and manage the diseases of the elderly population.
Even though we are not medical doctors, there are a few ways dentists can help in preventing strokes. Many of these ways include knowing and being able to recognize the risk factors. Some of the risk factors for stroke include diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, tobacco use, alcohol use, contraceptives, and a previous history of stroke2. Therefore, taking a thorough medical history is imperative. Another risk factor is having high blood pressure. As a result, the dentist should take the patient’s blood pressure upon every visit. Blood pressure reduction is one of the most effective approaches in the prevention of strokes4.
Recognizing when someone is having a stroke is essential in being able to handle the medical emergency. The American Stoke Association suggests using the F.A.S.T technique to recognize when someone is having a stroke. F stands for face drooping. Ask the patient to smile and see if it is uneven. A stands for arm weakness. Ask the patient to raise both arms and see if one is lower than the other. S stands for speech difficulty. Ask the patient to repeat a simple sentence and see if they can do so correctly. T stands for time to call 9-1-15. As a dentist, it is important to notice these symptoms and act quickly to allow the...
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...at contributed to her stroke. An interesting study looked at whether or not periodontitis was associated with strokes. The study took place in Seoul, South Korea, which was where my grandmother lived. They found periodontitis to be independently associated with non-fatal strokes in a non-Western population6.
In conclusion, a dentist needs to know how to properly prevent, recognize, and manage a stroke patient. With a growing elderly population, this is more imperative than ever. Patients are living longer and we want them to enjoy it by ensuring a good quality of life. Therefore, it is important that we don’t treat all our patients the same, but realize they are all unique individuals with unique needs. This might mean not only taking care of their dental problems, but other health issues as well. Our goal should be to optimize the overall health of our patient.
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Ischemic Stroke is caused due to a blood clot in an area of the brain, leading to loss of neural function if last for more than 24 hours. In the United States, ischemic stroke affects 2.7% of men and 2.5% of women of age range 18 years and older. In addition, it has reported that annually about 610,000 and 185,000 of new strokes and recurrent strokes cases occur in US1. Moreover, it has reported that patients who have suffered from a stroke have more chances of recurrent stroke, Myocardial infarction, and death from vascular causes2. One of the risk factor of ischemic stroke is formation of plaque in the blood vessels causing blood clot3. Several randomized trials have also reported that antiplatelet medications are efficient in preventing recurrences of stroke in patients who had an incident of ischemic stroke. Antiplatelet medications for preventing recurrences of stroke are aspirin, combination of aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole, and clopidogrel alone4. It ha...
The main aim of this report is to present and analyse the disease called Cerebrovascular Accident popularly known as stroke. This disease affects the cerebrovascular system, which is a part of the cardiovascular system. To achieve this aim this report will firstly talk about the cerebrovascular system with its structure and functions. The main body of this report will look at causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments and prevention of stroke.
It is frequently expressed by stroke patients and caregivers that they have not been afforded the suitable information related to stroke, treatments, or post discharge management and recovery, and that the information conveyed is perceived as insufficient and complex. The problem is that there is a failure of healthcare professionals in identifying the learning needs of stroke patients associated with a deficiency in knowledge of just how to access and communicate this crucial information. Indeed, while patient education can be time consuming and nurses may not be properly trained in stroke education it is a nursing duty to provide these teachings to patients and caregivers prior to discharge. This paper will propose an educational plan intended to train, assist, and support nursing staff responsible for stroke patient education, in providing accurate, individualized, guideline based stroke education to patients and families prior to discharge. This plan
A very important life dynamical event is that stroke not solely affects the disabled person, however additionally the caregivers. Utility analyzes describes that stroke is viewed by people who face risk factors as being worse than death . Effective ways of screening, analysis techniques, are coming up with management methods which are established at high price in extremely developed countries . However developing countries like India and some of the neighboring countries lack such facilities .
A stroke can happen at any age but for patients who are 55 and older, their risk factor will increase due to age and physical activity. “While stroke is common among the elderly, a lot of people under 65 also have strokes”(“About Stroke” page 1). Also at risk are African Americans because of other health issues that can trigger a stroke, for example: high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity. Caucasians and Hispanics are also at. Not only does Ethnicity and age play a factor, but so does other health conditions. Patients who suffer from high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, alcohol and drug
Mr. X is 84 years old. He was admitted to the hospital on January 4, 2014, due to hematuria in his urine and a suspected Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA). After the admission, he was sent for a CT scan, which confirmed Mr. X’s TIA in his right hemisphere. On January 5, 2014 Mr. X was transferred to CP1, an acute care stroke unit. His first TIA episode had been on August 28, 2012. His comorbidities include hypertension and type II diabetes. His activities are limited to bed rest as he has risk of falls; also he is on input-output with a Foley catheter. He has left side weakness and mild facial drooping on the left side. He is alert and oriented; however, he has trouble focusing on many people at one time. His care plan state...
Strokes. Generally, whenever we hear about someone who suffered from a stroke, the result is never good. Why is it that strokes are so dangerous and why is it so important for providers to recognize them as early as possible? What do we do when we suspect a patient is currently having an active CVA (cerebral vascular accident)? All of these are excellent questions that medical providers need to affluent in.
Cerebrovascular disease or the term stroke is used to describe the effects of an interruption of the blood supply to a localised area of the brain. It is characterized by rapid focal or global impairment of cerebral function lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death (Hatano, 1976). As such it is a clinically defined syndrome and should not be regarded as a single disease. Stroke affects 174-216 people per 10,000 population in the UK per year and accounts for 11% of all deaths in England and Wales (Mant et al, 2004). The risk of recurrent stroke within 5 years is between 30-43%. One problem is that the incidence of stroke rises steeply with age and the number of elderly people in the UK is on the increase. To date people who experience a stroke occupy around 20 per cent of all acute hospital beds and 25 per cent of long term beds (Stroke Association, 2004). The British Government now identifies stroke as a major economic burden on the National Health Service (DoH, 2002).
Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the brain injuries caused by stroke are a huge cause of disability in older adults. There are over 1.2 million stroke survivors in the UK and half of all stroke survivors have a disability following their stroke. A person’s age increases their risk of having a stroke. Most strokes occur between the ages of 65 and 75. There are three main types of strokes. 85% of strokes are ischaemic and occur when a blood clot forms in an artery leading to the brain, stopping the blood supply causing a neurological defect lasting more than 24 hours (Alexander et al., 2011). 15% of strokes are haemorrhagic and result from a weakened blood vessel that has ruptured and bleeds into the surrounding brain. It can be
The aim of the study was to identify how physically active Stroke patients are during the acute stages following Stroke since, the amount of physical activeness in medically stable Stroke patients was identified as one of the factors crucial for promoting later stage functional recovery. In the Intensive care units and post acute medical wards studied, the amount of physical activity levels demonstrated by Stroke patients were low - provided the medical limitations. They were active only 30% of the time. The remaining 70% was spent inactive in activities like sleeping, lying in bed, chatting, watching tv, being turned, being shifted, being fed and passive exercise of the affected limb.
Assessment of the gathered data leads to a nursing diagnosis. A client who is a stroke survivor complains in difficulty when swallowing that is associated to deficit in oral, pharyngeal, or esophageal structure or function. In this case the nursing diagnosis is impaired swallowing related to neurological problem (Ackley & Ladwig, 2011).
According to the American Heart Association / American Stroke Association’s About Stroke (2014) “stroke is the number four cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in the United States” (para.1). On average, a stroke happens every 40 seconds in the United States (Impact of Stroke, para. 1) About 4% to 17% of all patients with stroke experience symptom onset while hospitalized (Cumbler, et al., 2014). This amounts to about 35,000-75,000 in-hospital strokes in the United States annually.
“Time is brain” is the repeated catch phrase when addressing the treatment and management of stroke (Saver, 2006). Access to prompt and appropriate medical care during the first few hours of stroke onset is critical to patient survival and outcomes. Recent changes in the guidelines for acute stroke care released by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American Stroke Association (ASA) have improved patient access to treatment. Stroke treatment now follows the model of myocardial infarction treatment. Hospitals are categorized into four levels based on stroke treatment capability. The most specialized treatment is available in comprehensive stroke centers followed by primary stroke centers, acute stroke-ready hospitals, and community hospitals. The use of telemedicine now enables even community hospitals, with limited specialized capabilities, to care for stroke patients. Telemedicine puts emergency hospital personnel in contact with neurologists providing expertise in the evaluation of a stroke patient and determination of their eligibility for treatment with thrombolytic medication (Jefferey, 2013).
Stroke is a serious medical condition that affects people of all ages specifically older adults. People suffer from a stroke when there is decreased blood flow to the brain. Blood supply decreases due to a blockage or a rupture of a blood vessel which then leads to brain tissues dying. The two types of stroke are ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. An ischemic stroke is caused by a blood clot blocking the artery that brings oxygenated blood to the brain. On the other hand, a hemorrhagic stroke is when an artery in the brain leaks or ruptures (“About Stroke,” 2013). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and is a major cause of adult disability” (“About Stroke,” 2013). Stroke causes a number of disabilities and also leads to decreased mobility in over half of the victims that are 65 and older. The CDC lists several risk factors of stroke such as heredity, age, gender and ethnicity as well as medical conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and excessive weight gain that in...
The animals that stroke primarily affects are humans. This is likely caused by risk factors that humans attain, such as cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, a poor diet, stroke occurring in ancestors, and physical activity/obesity. Stroke has is also starting to become recognized in cats, dogs, and rabbits. According to the World Health Organization, 15 million people suffer from a stroke worldwide every year. Of the people diagnosed, 5 million die and 5 million are permanently disabled. In the United States, 795,000 suffer from stroke annually. 85 percent of the diagnosed strokes are ischemic and 15 percent of them are hemorrhagic As for the humans diagnosed, three fourths of the people that suffer from a stroke are elderly (over the age of 65). This is caused by raising cholesterol levels and the narrowing of arteries as someone ages. Ethnicity, as well as age can also affect a person’s risk to fall victim to a stroke. Africans have a much higher risk of death from a stroke than Caucasians do. This is partly because blacks have greater risks of high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. Research suggests Africans may carry a gene that makes them more salt sensitive, inevitably increasing the risk of high blood pressure. Fortunately, research is still being done to prevent stroke. Rats and mice are primary animal subjects for studying this deadly