Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the brain injuries caused by stroke are a huge cause of disability in older adults. There are over 1.2 million stroke survivors in the UK and half of all stroke survivors have a disability following their stroke. A person’s age increases their risk of having a stroke. Most strokes occur between the ages of 65 and 75. There are three main types of strokes. 85% of strokes are ischaemic and occur when a blood clot forms in an artery leading to the brain, stopping the blood supply causing a neurological defect lasting more than 24 hours (Alexander et al., 2011). 15% of strokes are haemorrhagic and result from a weakened blood vessel that has ruptured and bleeds into the surrounding brain. It can be …show more content…
It is crucially important for each member of the multidisciplinary team to take the patient’s physical, lifestyle, emotional, social and spiritual needs into close consideration when planning and carrying out their care. Healthcare professionals work together while presenting effective communication skills to deliver holistic care. Nursing staff will work with the patient providing care and rehabilitation both in the hospital and the community. During the diagnosis stage they are there to provide information, support and recommend services to the patient, patient’s family and carers. In aiming for optimal self-management, a nurse must be prepared to adopt a flexible approach and recognise that not all people are motivated to participate actively in rehabilitation and support and patience are needed to enable them to work towards their potential at their own pace (Alexander et al,. 2011). Nurses receive advice from other healthcare professionals regarding how to manage activities using a holistic approach that will benefit the patient’s recovery and self-management while recognising the individual as a person with abilities, aspirations, strengths and goals. During the diagnosis stage of a stroke, a physiotherapist would assess the patient’s movement and ability to mobilise as it is likely to be restricted. Carers …show more content…
The diagnosis can leave the patient struggling to make sense of the world. A steep learning curve is called for as the patient is presented with a new lexicon of diagnosis, symptoms, services, treatments and interventions while trying to make sense of the information given to them by healthcare professionals. This new change can have a major impact on the psychological health and well-being of a patient (Margereson, Trenoweth, and Margereson, 2014). The presence of co-morbidities, which is a number of conditions a person may be suffering from along with their newly diagnosed long term condition, is a huge factor that could impact a person’s lifestyle. Many people who have suffered from a long term condition also present mental health issues such as depression and can direct their anger towards others. Carers are greatly affected by a person’s co-morbidities as they face increased demands and have more responsibilities (Alexander et al., 2011). A person’s mental illness can also have an effect on their physical illness, for example, it is shown that peace of mind is a positive contribute to pain relief whereas fear, anger and guilt all amplify pain (Bope et al., 2004). A mental health assessment is an important part of the diagnosis stage of a long term condition given the psychological impact it can have on a person’s health. Nurses should build a trusting relationship
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The NHS Outcomes Framework has five standard domains which is set out to improve the quality and outcome of care and services that is being delivered to the patients and service users (National Quality Board, 2011). As such, this project plan is focused on domain 2 as it has been mentioned before, is based on improving the quality of people with long term conditions. Nurses will give cardiac discharge advice to patients on self care, thus identifying how to improve and manage their condition so that they can continue with their normal lifestyle. Furthermore patients will be advised on how to overcome stress and depression which will help them in maintaining the activities of living (DoH, 2013).
1. What is the difference between a. and a. Introduction The main aim of this report is to present and analyse the disease called Cerebrovascular Accident, popularly known as stroke. This disease affects the cerebrovascular system, which is a part of the cardiovascular system.
Globally the leading reason for mortality and morbidity rate is stroke. Nearly twenty million individuals can suffer from stroke annually and around five million individuals won't survive . The developing countries account for a median of 85% of worldwide deaths from stroke . Stroke ends up in practical impairments with a median rate of two hundredth survivors who need institutional care once an amount of three months and 15%-30% are going to be disabled for good .
In the United States, 795,000 people will have their first or recurrent stroke. Studies show that 10% of strokes are secondary to intracerebral hemorrhage and another 3% are due to subarachnoid hemorrhage. The frequency of stroke varies with age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. African Americans and Hispanics have the greatest threat of intracerebral hemorrhage and excess risk is mostly observed in young and middle aged people (Liebskind & O 'Connor,2015).
The aim of this essay is to discuss the nature of illness and dependence in relation to the issues that the nurse should take into account when providing evidence-based care. The issues that will be analysed are the nursing process and nursing models, the implications of nursing technology on the nurse, the patient and their family, the psychological issues for the patient and their family, the consequences of disability and chronic illness and the importance of patient-centred nursing. These issues will be discussed, for the most part, in relation to the patient care received by patients admitted to a ‘high tech’ area. The ‘high tech’ area will be, on the whole, focused in a medical high dependency unit in a local general hospital.
The World Health Organisation (2013) explains that an Ischaemic stroke occurs as a result of a blood vessel becoming blocked by a clot, reducing the supply of oxygen to the brain and, therefore, damaging tissue. The rationale for selecting Mary for this discussion is; the author wishes to expand her evidenced based knowledge of stroke since it is the principal cause of disability and the third leading cause of mortality within the Scottish population (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), 2008) and, therefore, a national priority. In response to this priority, the Scottish Government (2009) produced their ‘Better Heart Disease and Stroke Care Action Plan’. Additionally, they have introduced a HEAT target to ensure 90% of stroke patients get transferred to a specialised stroke unit on the day of admission to hospital (Scottish Government, 2012).
“Time is brain” is the repeated catch phrase when addressing the treatment and management of stroke (Saver, 2006). Access to prompt and appropriate medical care during the first few hours of stroke onset is critical to patient survival and outcomes. Recent changes in the guidelines for acute stroke care released by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American Stroke Association (ASA) have improved patient access to treatment. Stroke treatment now follows the model of myocardial infarction treatment. Hospitals are categorized into four levels based on stroke treatment capability. The most specialized treatment is available in comprehensive stroke centers followed by primary stroke centers, acute stroke-ready hospitals, and community hospitals. The use of telemedicine now enables even community hospitals, with limited specialized capabilities, to care for stroke patients. Telemedicine puts emergency hospital personnel in contact with neurologists providing expertise in the evaluation of a stroke patient and determination of their eligibility for treatment with thrombolytic medication (Jefferey, 2013).
This story was about stroke patients who agreed to be interviewed. There were four examples of the interview to compare two different types of interviews. There are two examples of obvious narrative and there are two examples with less easily definable as narratives.
In the last few years efforts has been made to better understand the pathophysiology of stroke, especially ischemic stroke that is responsible for 80 percent of the cases. It has been stablished that the immune system, and specifically the inflammatory compounds, play an important role in the development and aggravation of ischemic stroke. The different ways that an inflammatory environment can contribute to the stroke development are: alteration in the vascular reactivity or vasculitis, thus promoting vasculopathy; thrombosis and atherosclerosis (ref 11, 15, 18-22 macrez).
Stroke is a serious medical condition that affects people of all ages specifically older adults. People suffer from a stroke when there is decreased blood flow to the brain. Blood supply decreases due to a blockage or a rupture of a blood vessel which then leads to brain tissues dying. The two types of stroke are ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. An ischemic stroke is caused by a blood clot blocking the artery that brings oxygenated blood to the brain. On the other hand, a hemorrhagic stroke is when an artery in the brain leaks or ruptures (“About Stroke,” 2013). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and is a major cause of adult disability” (“About Stroke,” 2013). Stroke causes a number of disabilities and also leads to decreased mobility in over half of the victims that are 65 and older. The CDC lists several risk factors of stroke such as heredity, age, gender and ethnicity as well as medical conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and excessive weight gain that in...
Stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or condensed. Blood works to transport oxygen and other beneficial substances to the body’s cells and organs, as well as the brain. There are two main types of strokes that are known as Ischemic strokes and Hemorrhagic strokes. When the blood vessels that provides for the brain becomes congested, is it referred to as ischemic stroke, the most common stroke within adults. Blood clots, a cluster of blood that sticks together, are the cause of Ischemic strokes. Ischemic strokes also takes place when arteries become backed up with plague, leaving less blood to flow. Plague is cholesterol, calcium and fibrous and connective tissue that sticks to the walls of blood vessels. Ischemic strokes eternally damage the brain and cause a person's body to no longer function habitually.Some risk factors that may increase stroke are high cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity. Some stroke factors are also due to old age or having a family that has a history of strokes. Men are more likely to have a stroke but the most st...
The majority of strokes, approximately 90 percent, are ischemic strokes (Stroke, 2010). Some of the main types of stroke are cerebral thrombosis and cerebral embolism, both caused by a blockage of the blood supply to the brain, occurring in a main artery of the neck, the carotid, or other arteries that supply blood to the brain, or an artery in the brain itself (Stroke, 2010). Blood clots are formed, as a result of plaque deposits in these arteries. Another type of ischemic stroke is an embolic stroke, which happens when a blood clot develops in a blood vessel a distance away from the brain ordinarily in the heart. The embolus then is carried through the bloodstream to imbed itself in brain arteries which are narrowed, slowing the flow of blood (Stroke, 2010). One of the most common ...
A stroke can be generally be defined in two types of categories. The first and most common type of stroke is called ischemic stroke. This occurs when a blood clot (cerebral thrombosis) blocks a blood vessel in the brain. Blood flow beyond the blood clot is then restricted, and the part of the brain that relies on that blood supply becomes oxygen deficient and can die (1). A blood clot can develop in a narrowed artery that supplies the brain or can travel directly from the heart (or somewhere in the body) to an artery that supplies the brain. Blood clots are usually the result of other issues in the body that affect the normal blood flow. Common problems that affect the normal blood flow include: hardening of the arteries, irregular heart rhythms, infection of the heart valves, congenital heart defects, blood clotting disorders, inflammation of the blood vessels, etc. (2)
Stroke is a commonly known disease that is often fatal. This cellular disease occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted by either a blood clot halting the progress of blood cells in an artery, called an Ischemic stroke, or a blood vessel in the brain bursting or leaking causing internal bleeding in the brain, called a hemorrhagic stroke. When this happens, brain cells are deprived of oxygen and nutrients because the blood cells carrying these essential things are stopped, causing them to die. When the cells in the brain die, sensation or movement in a limb might be cut off and may limit an organism’s abilities. A person with stroke is affected depending on where in the brain the stroke occurs. In other words, symptoms of a stroke
Educating a stroke patient comes with many challenges. Patients who have had a stroke may suffer from barriers that may negatively affect the learning process. When educating patients in general, it has been reported that 40-80% of the information provided by the healthcare professionals is forgotten (Kessels, 2003). The more information that is presented, the least amount of information is recalled (Kessels, 2003). Many studies have provided information regarding which teaching modality works best with stroke patients. Written materials paired with oral education, hands on approach, demonstration, telephone follow up calls, as well as repetition has been proven effective with stroke patients. In addition, it has been reported that one must individualize the education to each patient keeping in mind the patients post stroke reading level.