The main aim of this report is to present and analyse the disease called Cerebrovascular Accident popularly known as stroke. This disease affects the cerebrovascular system, which is a part of the cardiovascular system. To achieve this aim this report will firstly talk about the cerebrovascular system with its structure and functions. The main body of this report will look at causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments and prevention of stroke.
2. Cerebrovascular system
a) Overview of the cerebrovascular system
b) Normal function
3. Cerebrovascular Accident
a) Overview - definition and the effects of the stroke on the body
A stroke is a serious, life-threatening medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of
The effects include paralysis of a limb or one side of the body and disturbances of speech and vision. The nature and extent of damage depends on the size and location of the affected blood vessels. The main causes are cerebral infarction (approx. 85%) and spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage (15%) (Waugh & Grant, 2010).
What Happens During a Stroke? (http://www.cdc.gov/stroke/about.htm)
If something happens to interrupt the flow of blood, brain cells start to die within minutes because they can’t get oxygen. This is called a stroke. Sudden bleeding in the brain also can cause a stroke if it damages brain cells. A stroke can cause lasting brain damage, long-term disability, or even death.
If brain cells die or are damaged because of a stroke, symptoms of that damage start to show in the parts of the body controlled by those brain cells.
Like all organs, the brain needs the oxygen and nutrients provided by blood to function properly. If the supply of blood is restricted or stopped, brain cells begin to die. This can lead to brain injury, disability and possibly death.
There are two main causes of
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Due to the lose in brain cells sometime facial nerve can become damage. Which is also a sign of a stroke. In stroke patient usually when ask to smile, only half of their facial muscle would be able to do so. While the other half remain drooped. The Circulatory system is affect as well. Remember in a Hemorrhagic stroke a ruptured blood vessel begins to bleed out into the brain. Once blood is secreted out side the blood vessel into the tissues, red blood cells will take away nutrient from the brain cells. In Ischemic, the blockage in the blood vessel does not allow the blood to circulated proper. As a result of lost blood supply brain cells will die in the area where it is not receiving nourishment. Traveling in our bloodstream is oxygen and glucose, which is constantly need for cells to preform they daily functions.
So, what is actually happening when a stroke occurs? A stroke occurs blood flow to the brain is either impeded or significantly reduced. When this happens, the brain cells are starved of the essential oxygen and nutrients they need and begin to die. There are three different kinds of strokes. They are ischemic, hemorrhagic,
Cerebrovascular disease or the term stroke is used to describe the effects of an interruption of the blood supply to a localised area of the brain. It is characterized by rapid focal or global impairment of cerebral function lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death (Hatano, 1976). As such it is a clinically defined syndrome and should not be regarded as a single disease. Stroke affects 174-216 people per 10,000 population in the UK per year and accounts for 11% of all deaths in England and Wales (Mant et al, 2004). The risk of recurrent stroke within 5 years is between 30-43%. One problem is that the incidence of stroke rises steeply with age and the number of elderly people in the UK is on the increase. To date people who experience a stroke occupy around 20 per cent of all acute hospital beds and 25 per cent of long term beds (Stroke Association, 2004). The British Government now identifies stroke as a major economic burden on the National Health Service (DoH, 2002).
Many underlying factors can contribute for someone to have a stroke; these including not limited to:artherosclerosis,(harding of the arteries) commonly from fat consummation, heart disease (generally) hypertension(high blood pressure), kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. Cerebrovaslar accident is an abnormal condition of the blood vessels of the brain, characterized by occlusion , an embolus ,or hemorrhage, resulting of a lack of blood supply in the brain tissues (ischemia) normally perfused by the damage vessels. CVA (orstroke) is the most common disease of the nervous system and Is ranked as the third leading cause of death in the United Stated., with About 200,000 deaths annually. According to Foundation of Nursing by Barbara Christensen/Elaine Kockrow( second Edition) Strokes affect persons in all age
It is caused by clot that blocks blood vessels from supplying blood to the brain through cerebrovascular events. If there is no blood in the brain, then there is no oxygen or nutrients because it is blood that supplies it to the brain. This can cause permanent brain damage which can cause inflammation. Fasting has there been known to be effective and efficient against stroke because it increases cognitive functioning and health of the brain. In addition, fasting has been known to increase neuro-protective proteins and reduction in inflammatory substance known as cytokines. This is critical reducing the chances of damaging the brain that can cause
Stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or condensed. Blood works to transport oxygen and other beneficial substances to the body’s cells and organs, as well as the brain. There are two main types of strokes that are known as Ischemic strokes and Hemorrhagic strokes. When the blood vessels that provides for the brain becomes congested, is it referred to as ischemic stroke, the most common stroke within adults. Blood clots, a cluster of blood that sticks together, are the cause of Ischemic strokes. Ischemic strokes also takes place when arteries become backed up with plague, leaving less blood to flow. Plague is cholesterol, calcium and fibrous and connective tissue that sticks to the walls of blood vessels. Ischemic strokes eternally damage the brain and cause a person's body to no longer function habitually.Some risk factors that may increase stroke are high cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity. Some stroke factors are also due to old age or having a family that has a history of strokes. Men are more likely to have a stroke but the most st...
According the statistics from the American Heart Association (2012), when electrical impulses to the heart suddenly become uncoordinated, causing the immediate cessation of the heart to function, this is considered a cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest that occurs outside of the hospital has an incidence of 359,400 with a survival rate of 9.5 % (American Heart Association (AHA), 2012). In absence circulation, neurological injury occurs from the lack of oxygen delivered to the brain (Deckard & Ebright, 2011). This disruption of oxygen can cause a cascade of events that include hypoxia, cellular death, the activation of the inflammatory response, and cerebral edema. The continuation
Stroke is a commonly known disease that is often fatal. This cellular disease occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted by either a blood clot halting the progress of blood cells in an artery, called an Ischemic stroke, or a blood vessel in the brain bursting or leaking causing internal bleeding in the brain, called a hemorrhagic stroke. When this happens, brain cells are deprived of oxygen and nutrients because the blood cells carrying these essential things are stopped, causing them to die. When the cells in the brain die, sensation or movement in a limb might be cut off and may limit an organism’s abilities. A person with stroke is affected depending on where in the brain the stroke occurs. In other words, symptoms of a stroke
Cerebral vascular accidents are becoming a predominant health issue within society, effecting approximately 51,000 Australians each year (1,2), and has been identified as the second most common cause of death within communities. The Australian Government currently spends in excess of $5 billion annually on treatments for cerebral vascular accidents with costs continuing to increase dramatically (2,3). Strokes are a major cause of mortality and one of the most common causes of permanent disability, statistics show that there is over 440,000 people living with the debilitating effects following strokes in Australia alone (2,3).
Stroke is also known as a “brain attack”, it occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery (a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body) or a vessel (a tube through which the blood moves through the body) breaks, interrupting blood flow to an area of the brain. When either of these things happens; the brain cells begin to die because of lack of oxygen and blood supply. When brain cells die during a stroke, abilities controlled by that area of the brain are lost. Depending on where they are dying at depends on which abilities are affected; these abilities include speech, movement and memory. Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in America and a leading cause of adult disability. (1)(7)
In Conclusion, it is common for people to have strokes. Many think that it won’t happen to them, but it does. It is recommended to get checked regularly by their doctor just to be on top of their health. We do not always know what is going on inside of our body. This is why it is important to have our doctors give the confirmation that we are okay or if something is worse. It is always better to be a step ahead. It is also important that people know that they aren’t alone. There are so many resources and medical places that will be glad to help them get back to being healthy.
Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults (Morris, van Wijck, Joice, & Donaghy, 2013). A stroke is caused by blood loss to the brain due to a clot or ruptured vessel. Most stroke victims suffer from hemiparesis: partial or full loss of voluntary movement on one side of the body (Pereira et al., 2012). Paresis is the most common motor impairment caused by stroke. Paresis can range from mild to severe and occurs contralateral to the side of the infarct on the brain. Mild paresis results in movements that can appear to be normal or near normal. Severe paresis can result in little to no movement in the affected limb (Lang, Bland, Bailey, Schaefer, & Birkenmeier, 2013).
A stroke or cerebrovascular accident “effects 800,000 people a year”, the fourth leading cause of morality.1 A stroke is caused by a blockage or a hemorrhage interrupting the blood flow to the brain and depriving the brain of oxygen.2 This lack of blood flow to the brain results in the affected areas inability to properly function, for example, some may have difficulty speaking, understanding, writing or reading language, while others may have paralysis on one side of their body.3 More importantly, a stroke may cause permanent brain damage and death. There are treatable risk factors include smoking, drinking, drugs, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes.1 Other risk factors are previous stroke, being 55 or older, African-Americans, and although, males have a higher risk of having stroke, females are more likely to die of strokes.1