Content-area Instruction English language learners in United States face multiple challenges for achieving academic success. In order to successfully complete a task, they need to master both English as a language form and how it is used in core content classes. Consequently, teachers need to implement different content-area instructional approaches and methods in order to help the ELL students. Among these methods are the Content-enriched English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction, the Cognitive Academic Language Approach (CALLA), and Sheltered content instruction. Content based or enriched English as a Second Language instruction is an approach that provides second language learners with instruction in content and language.
This essay will also develop from the following components that methods and techniques are important to encourage tactical instructional strategies. These components are comprehensible input, feedback that is on-going, specific and immediate, grouping structures and techniques, building background and vocabulary development along with student engagement. Teaching students a language that is foreign can really be challenging for students as well as for the teachers. The dynamic rule for implementing instructing in a diverse class to English-learners is to use resourceful life skills such as diligence, hard work and patience. There are also methods that are involved in teaching English as a second language that can be creative for the teacher, yet beneficial to the student.
Intelligence has been separated into different parts; “linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal behaviors” (Hardman, 2011). Knowing this as an educator a lesson plan should incorporate auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners, thus covering all areas. This lesson plan did include differentiated instruction. Differentiated instruction focuses more on the students and how to teach them. The school must make sure “that teachers focus on process and procedures that ensure effective learning” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006, p iv) for numerous students in the class.
That is the reason why students of elementary school up to university learn English as second language (ESL) or foreign language (EFL) nowadays. In the context of ESL/EFL learning process, a class has a really important role. That is the main place where the learners are given many kind of target language input. So that is why, the class should be set maximally. In order to do that, teacher should concern on many aspects.
Incorporating Nonlinguistic Cues into ELL Instruction Communicating what we want to say, how we want to say it is the goal of expressing ourselves linguistically. For English Language Learners (and their teachers), the ability to do that successfully in their new language presents a challenge. In the content areas of instruction, it is especially important to draw out the information that a student already knows in their native language – even when they do not have the linguistic ability to express themselves in English – in order to assess their level of understanding and engage prior knowledge. Using non-linguistic representations provides a way of bridging that gap between actual understanding and the ability to express that understanding for English Language Learners. For teachers, non-linguistic cues or representations are an effective alternative method in the process of delivering language and content instruction.
Graphic organizers. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved Nov 2011 from http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/graphic_organizers Lee, C.C. (2007). Graphic organisers as scaffolding for students’ revision in the pre-writing stage.
I. Introduction Assessment is vital to the education process considering that it allows teachers diagnose students’ difficulties, strengths and provide positive, supportive and useful feedback to learners since it measures not only the students’ performance, but also, the progress they are making (Lennon, 2012, p.4). In the same token, an article about classroom assessment states that “assessment is a systematic process of gathering information about what a student knows, is able to do, and is learning to do”. Moreover, the information gathered in the assessment process offers the foundation for decision-making and planning for instruction and learning. To sum up, assessment is an integral part of instruction that enhances, empowers, and celebrates student learning (Classroom Assessment, n.d. p.3).
Unit 1. Introduction to Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://www2.nkfust.edu.tw/~emchen/CALL/unit1.htm Giesbrecht, N. (n.d.). Connectivism: Teaching and Learning .
Abingdon: Routledge pp16-20 Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998). ‘Assessment and classroom learning’. Assessment in Education. 5(1) [Online] Avalaible at: http://area.fc.ul.pt/artigos%20publicados%20internacionais/Assessment%20and%20classroom%20learning.doc Bloom, B.S. (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
The first tool is to make sure that all instructions are given to students in written form. English language learners struggle with process the spoken language and not making is visual is a hindrance. Utilizing diagram or pictures will help improve comprehension and the ability to grasp concepts more effectively and efficiently. Teachers need to also utilize the peers in the classrooms. ELL students need the ability to practice their newfound language in an environment such as sample groups to show engagement and understanding.