Anabolic-Androgenic steroids, often solely called anabolic steroids, are: “chemicals that act like hormones--substances normally in your body that regulate bodily functions” (Kowalski 1). They are synthetic substances, meaning man-made, which have two functions: the anabolic effect which causes an increase in the growth of muscle mass and the androgenic effect which causes, or increases, the development of male sexual characteristics. It’s the anobolic effect that most steroid users, or abusers, are after.
Congressional investigation into steroid use in athletics has slowed a growing problem in America. Harsher penalties and fines are being enforced, which is discouraging many athletes from choosing steroids to stay ahead of competition. This is also helping America’s youth understand the right message, that steroid use isn’t a viable option. Steroids bring nothing positive to professional sports. Instead, they give kids the idea that cheating is acceptable, if their idols are doing it. Steroids ruin the integrity of sports, which is why Congress made the right move to help put a stop to this issue.
Steroids are unhealthy for baseball players and they are giving the game of baseball a bad reputation. Since steroids have become such a hot topic in Major League Baseball (MLB) fans have had nothing but bad things to say about the sport and its players. When sports illustrated asked some of its readers to give reaction to the steroid controversy in the MLB here is what baseball fan Howard Langsner from New York had to say 'Horrible, just horrible. We take Olympic medals away from athletes on steroids, but we're supposed to look the other way in MLB because a guy can make the ball go further? Drug testing is commonplace everywhere, and used in other sports, as the article mentioned. Baseball should be no different'. Matt Bookman of San Jose, California writes 'That's it. I'm done as a baseball fan until MLB has a comprehensive drug testing policy. I feel so naive. I really thought that the players had gotten bigger and stronger because they had learned the value of hitting the weight room and staying in shape during the off season. It breaks my heart that I won't be able to give my children the same experience I had growing up -- to go to the ballpark and feel good about your guys and cheer on your team.' The fans reaction speaks for itself but MLB should not sit back and let steroids take over a game that was at one time America?s pastime. In this paper research will be given on what exactly are anabolic steroids and how they can affect your body, testing policies, the effectiveness of steroids on players and major league baseball.
Why should steroids not be allowed in Major League Baseball? That seems to be the question that is plaguing the so called, "America's pastime." The MLB is not the only sports league having a problem with this issue, but it seems that most of the time a player is caught using steroids; he is associated with the Major Leagues. This was very intriguing for me because baseball is both my father's and my favorite sport. I grew up watching baseball with him almost every single night and now that the game has been "tainted" with drug use, I feel it has been shamed by those who do use steroids.
Following the war with Vietnam, America foreign policy saw a new shift. This shift is marked by the decline of containment to a policy of a ‘here and now’ approach. That is, the United States’ new policy was to deal with each situation on a case by case basis rather than treating every threat of communism as a threat to containment. This reclaimed part of the old policy of objectivity in international affairs. As the past shows, controversies and wars alike have the power to dramatically shift a countries foreign policy. One can only wonder what will cause the next change.
An anabolic steroid is one of a group of synthetic steroid hormones that promote growth of muscles, as well as other tissue in the body (White). Another steroid is Androstenedione ( andro ), and it is a steroid that the human body changes into testosterone, and that is produced in the body in small amounts, coming from the gonads and adrenal gland. Then continuing through the liver where it is formed into testosterone by an enzyme, then the testosterone promotes growth of muscle by helping " stockpile" nitrogen (Schrof 1). Also, another steroid is creatine, it is an amino acid that is produced in small amounts by the liver, kidneys, and pancreas, also it helps muscles replenish adenosine triphosphate. Creatine is popular weight gaining supplement used by many different groups of athletes. It is not unusual for beginning users to gain 20-30 pounds in the first few months of usage. Creatine helps the athlete bulk up weight and then work to turn it to muscle. Blood Doping is another form of steroid use. It is where blood that has a high count of oxygen is removed from the body after a workout, and replaced into the athlete weeks later just before a performance to insure high adrenaline levels of play (Brown pg. 2).
In recent history American culture has become more and more dominated by sports. Out of all of these sports baseball is considered to be America's pastime. Over the last couple years America's pastime has come under scrutiny about some of its players using anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs. In an interview with Sports Illustrated, Major League Baseball commissioner Bud Selig said, ¡§... hopefully we can figure out ways to solve this problem. It needs to be solved. There is no one I¡¦ve talked to who can say it is not a problem. Now the question is, What can we do about it?¡¨ (41). The commissioner is absolutely correct in saying that the steroids issue is a problem. Without a doubt the steroid issue is bringing the integrity of the game into question.
Anabolic steroids are synthetic substances that mimic the male sex hormones known as androgens. This is where the true name anabolic-androgenic steroid is derived, but for familiarity purposes they are referred to only as anabolic steroids (no purely anabolic agent has ever been synthesized). Specifically, they are synthetically produced to act as the male hormone testosterone. Testosterone has a 17-carbon core, like its replication- the anabolic steroid, and is credited for the promotion of growth of skeletal muscles and the development of male sexual characteristics. It has both androgenic (masculinization) and anabolic (tissue-building) effects in the human body. Functions of testosterone include increased numbers of red blood cells, improved calcium deposition in the bones, muscle enlargement, increased body hair, thickening of vocal chords, and growth and development of the prostate gland (Hickson, Ball, Falduto; 1989). Women have naturally occurring testosterone already present in their bodies, but in such sm...
Obedience is described as a compliance with an order, request, or law or submission to another’s authority. The majority of the world would say when pushed to a certain extreme that would lead to the harming of other people, humans would be not obedient to such a request because of our morals. Dr. Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, set up an experiment to prove this theory wrong. Dr. Milgram devised this experiment to focus on the conflict between obedience of the every day normal guy to the authority and personal conscience of their superiors.
By the early 1939, Adolph Hitler invaded some European areas, such as Austria and Czechoslovakia. Germany was determined to invade Poland. France and Britain were not worry until this point of the war, because they had the support of the Soviet Union. But Hitler, with a strategic move, made a deal with Soviet Union called the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact...
Anabolic-androgenic steroids are a group of hormones, which includes the natural male hormone, testosterone, and a number of synthetic compounds. "Anabolic" refers to muscle building, while "androgenic" refers to increased masculine characteristics. Anabolic effects are basically muscle growth. Androgenic effects produce secondary male sex characteristics like facial hair, body hair, deepening of the voice, and so on. In the 1950's scientists were trying to isolate the muscle building properties without the masculinizing effects. This lead to the development of synthetic anabolic steroids.
Stanley Milgram was a Yale psychologist that organized diverse studies during his career. In 1961, at the age of twenty-seven he conducted his most controversial study on obedience. In light of the recent Holocaust, Milgram wanted to comprehend how twelve million people were put to death simply by the orders from their commanders. The original accepted explanation was the popular notion of the authoritarian personality, but Milgram suspected the explanation to be too confined. He supposed the explanation to harmful obedience was not in the strength of personality but to a greater extent in the strength of the situation. Any influential circumstance could cause any normal person to disregard moral convictions and on command perform brutality. To evaluate his hypothesis, he organized a phony, but convincingly real shock machine, then ordered the volunteers to administer fake levels of electrical shock to actors who played along (Slater 32). The writer supports the controversy, but believes the study was ethical because it influenced the development of internal standards to regulate methods in research within psychology, produced inflicted insight experienced by participants, and it was vital for defeating the possible legitimacy risk associated with the studies of cognizant participants.
When talking about steroids, people often refer to Anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are a synthetic substance related to the male sex hormone (testosterone). Anabolic steroids have androgenic properties that include the development of masculine characteristics such as the growth of vocal cords, testicles and body hair. Anabolic steroids are used as performance enhancing drugs to advance the ability to do work and exercise but there are complications of using anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids help the development of lean muscle growth as steroids increase protein synthesis and reduce nitrogen excretion, which leads to increased muscle mass. Steroids also promote the change of the male characteristics. Anabolic steroids can be taken either orally or as an injection, which is more common, as taking steroids in pill form is more dangerous since most oral steroids are toxic to the liver. (Drug Abuse, 2006) Steroids are injected using a needle and injected directly into the muscle. Injectable steroids are administered into the muscle instead of the vein, to circumvent unexpected changes in the quantity of the drug in the bloodstream. After injected, the body then absorbs the liquid and the compound enters the systemic circulation. The absorption rate also varies on the user. (CESAR, 2014)
Anabolic steroids refer to hormones that are either taken orally or by injection. These hormones influence the body's hormonal system to produce extra testosterone. As previously stated, the goal of taking anabolic steroids is to increase muscle mass. The term “anabolic” refers to this muscle-building capability. Anabolic steroids should not be confused with corticosteroids, which are used routinely as anti-inflammatory medications to help treat illnesses in which inflammation is part of the disease process. There are a variety of common anabolic steroids. Some mimic the actions of testosterone directly, while others cause the body to produce excess testosterone by interfering with the normal hormone regulation system in the body. In the end