Incorporating Nonlinguistic Cues into ELL Instruction Communicating what we want to say, how we want to say it is the goal of expressing ourselves linguistically. For English Language Learners (and their teachers), the ability to do that successfully in their new language presents a challenge. In the content areas of instruction, it is especially important to draw out the information that a student already knows in their native language – even when they do not have the linguistic ability to express themselves in English – in order to assess their level of understanding and engage prior knowledge. Using non-linguistic representations provides a way of bridging that gap between actual understanding and the ability to express that understanding for English Language Learners. For teachers, non-linguistic cues or representations are an effective alternative method in the process of delivering language and content instruction.
Acquisition – learning hypothesis According to Gass (1997), Krashen points out that there are two independent processes that develop second language competence. These two processes are acquisition and learning. Acquisition is a subconscious process in which learners acquire the language similar to children acquiring their first language. In this process, learners are not aware of the fact of that they are acquiring the language, but they know that they are using it in communication. The other process in which learners can develop their second language competence is learning.
For instance, Plunkett (1993, as cited in Ganger & Brent, 2004) suggests that the acceleration results from linguistic advances such as word segmentation which allows children to pick up more words from speech stream; however, there is now a growing disagreement on its existence in all children (Goldfield & Reznick, 1990; Ganger & Brent, 2004). The aim of the present essay is to evaluate the ability of two theories, namely the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Dynamical Systems theory (DST), to explain the issues underlying the lexical development and vocabulary spurt. This essay provides an overview of both theories and compares their strengths and weaknesses in their explanation of lexical development supported by empirical evidence. Both ANN and DST were formed in opposition to the symbol system view of cognition (Smith & Samuelson, 2003). Despite acknowledging that some of underlying mechanisms may be innate, they see lexical development as an emergent process resulting from early social interaction and exposure to linguistic input (Poveda & Vellido, 2006).
Exploring these parameters unlocks the meaning of a language learner, a person who learns a language through study, experience, or teaching in order to communicate effectively with others and with his or her environment. A significant language learner is an ESL learner who goes through a process of acquiring a second language by applying different learning methods to learn the English language. However the explanation of a language learner does not end with an ESL learner, ESL learning goes beyond the student and teacher, and an effective communicator is not just one who explores the parameters of language and learning. These points go more in depth and if one would like to know more one must do so through academic research and inquiry, online or in person.
Language is used to communicate with others and is essentially human, but not limited to only human beings. As individuals learn English as their Second Language, they learn that language is acquired by all kinds of people in the same way. Mostly children can adapt and/or learn a foreign language better than adults due to children developing language and skills spontaneously (Honigsfield, 2009). Second language learners have variables such as memory, perception, acquisition, conscious and subconscious learning styles, and recall. Even though, second language learners have those instilled variables, it is imperative for the teachers to guide learning and set the conditions of learning.
“It is no longer a question of whether to take advantage of authentic material in foreign language instruction, but of how to harness them and guide our students in their use” -Paulsen, 2001-. The implementation of authentic material is causing an effect in different aspect of education, and changing the way how we teach and learn. Motivating EFL students to develop in the target language is a very complex process. Teachers and researchers have accepted motivation as one of the most important factors that influences a person to initiate learning a foreign language (L2). Wlodwoski (1999) defines motivation as “the process that can (a) arouse and instigate behavior, (b) give direction or purpose to behavior, (c) continue to allow behavior to persist, and (d) lead to choosing or preferring a particular behavior”.
Significance of Vocabulary for EFL Learners Learning and mastering of target language vocabulary have a vital role in any foreign language learning and teaching. The knowledge of vocabulary permits an EFL learner to achieve and demonstrate successful communication which is the essential aim of any foreign language learning and teaching. The knowledge of vocabulary also helps an EFL learner to find out the exquisiteness of that language through a great variety of new words .Knowledge of vocabulary enable an EFL learner to compare and contrast both the foreign language and the mother tongue. It also enable them to understand the similarities and differences between these two languages and assist them in learning language in exact meaning of
1.0 Introduction Reduplication is one of the word formation processes demonstrated in many languages of the world. In Bantu languages, the common word formation processes are the agglutinative nature of languages (affixation), borrowing, compounding and reduplication (Contini-Morava 2007). ‘Reduplication in Bantu languages is phonological as it has the phonological constraints that are based on the prosodic features’ (Odden 1996). In Bantu languages reduplication processes are either complete or partial. It is complete in a sense that the whole stem/base is copied and it is partial in a sense that only part of the stem is copied.
The present reaction paper is based on the article called Language Learning Strategies in a Nutshell: Update and ESL Suggestions, written by Rebecca L. Oxford (2004). In her article, the author refers to learning strategies in and out of the field of second language (henceforth L2). She defines strategies as the conscious plans or actions taken by learners to improve their progress in developing L2 skills and their communicative abilities. Oxford claims that according to research, explicit instruction on language learning strategies is beneficial for students in one of two main areas: overall proficiency or specific skill improvement. From this perspective, it is believed that explicit instruction on language learning strategies allows students to become good language learners who know, and understand that the use of strategies can be beneficial and even transferable to other fields of study.
A fundamental aspect of language acquisition is acquiring sufficient vocabulary to understand and convey meaning. As the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach is today´s contemporary method of teaching languages, the Grammar Translation Approach´s Focus on Forms (FonFs) became obsolete. Instead of the intentional teaching of language items, the CLT classroom focuses on incidental learning. Incidental learning is key principle of Focus on Form (FonF) and applied in the SLA classroom to give it a more naturalistic atmosphere. Various studies have observed the impact of incidental learning vs. intentional learning.