Stephen Krashen's Monitor Theory

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Stephen Krashen is an expert in the field of (nativist) linguistics whose theories focus on language acquisition and development. Krashen used many aspects of Chomsky’s innatist theory to explain second language acquisition. The most widely endorsed theory associated with Krashen is his Monitor Hypothesis. The process of SLA, Krashen claimed, is an acquired process as opposed to a learned one. Macaro identifies the similarities of Chomsky and Krashen as being L1 development, claiming evidence for a similar silent period, similar acquisition orders, and similarly using the Language Acquisition Device (Macaro, 2010). Krashen’s ‘monitor theory’ was used as a means of differentiating between the learnt system and the acquired system whereby only…show more content…
The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis- Krashen believed that learning and acquiring a second language are two different processes. The theory suggests that new linguistic information is obtained by the learner subconsciously (Macaro, 2010), much like the acquisition of the native language, whereas learning language is more of a conscious understanding of the language. Krashen advocated that language is more readily acquired when it is used to transmit messages in natural form of communication rather than when it is explicitly (Crochunis, Erdey, & Swedlow, 2002). We conclude that if second language learners are provided opportunities to produce the targeted language in authentic interactions with peers and teachers, this would positively influence the acquisition of the targeted language. Therefore, it could be said that language teachers should focus more attention on the meaning being communicated than on form, like obeying grammatical…show more content…
The Input Hypothesis postulates that second language learners will acquire the target language providing they understand the meaning behind what is said. In Krashen’s view, input activates an innate structure when input is one step ahead the learner’s level of competence. He believes if the learner is at a stage “1”, then acquisition takes place when s/he receives second language “comprehensible input” that belongs to to level”i + 1” (Teachscape, Inc., 2008a). This hypothesis recognizes that language development occurs when teachers place emphasis on comprehensibility of input. For Krashen, language teachers can secure learners’ understanding of challenging language, or language just beyond their current level, when the input is supported through the use of reinforcements like visuals, realia, photographs, models, background knowledge, and technology. Krashen points out that language acquisition does not require extensive teaching of grammar rules, but merely meaningful interactions using the targeted
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