Stem Cells And The Adult Tissue

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Stem cells are unspecialized; upon division they are capable of giving rise to a more specialized progenitor or to remain as a stem cell, proprieties called differentiation and self-renewal, respectively. During early development, a few of these cells are responsible for creating all tissues in a fully developed organism. In the adult tissues, they maintain homeostasis by replenishing cells lost in normal biologic process and injury. Due to their unique properties a lot of expectation and enthusiasm was build up around their possible utilization in the field of regenerative medicine. The intention was to employ stem cells in the unlimited production of healthy differentiated progeny, in order to replace cells lost by patients with degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease. Although simple in theory, this technique raised various questions about source, large-scale production, safety, delivery, rejection, the cell type to be transplant, cell behavior once in the patient and so forth (Pera, 2015). There are a few sources of stem cells to be considered, including embryos and the adult tissue. The major difference between these cells is their potency, the range of differentiated cells they can generate. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are derived from the inner cells mass of the pre-implantation blastocyst stage. They are pluripotent, capable of differentiating into all cells originated from the three primary germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm). On the other hand, adult stem cells are usually multipotent, giving rise only to the major cells types present in their tissue of origin. Yet another source of pluripotent cells are the so-called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), which are created by re-programming so... ... middle of paper ... ... the number of cells necessary for transplant is very low and the eye easily to accessed and monitored. Due to stem cells unique properties, they have a huge potential to be utilized in the treatment of regenerative diseases. Nevertheless, there still several unanswered question and aspects that need to be refined for stem cell-based therapy in clinical setting. So far the most prominent cell type utilized in regenerative medicine is the differentiated progeny of hESC, which is more easily obtained than other stem cells. The first clinical trial was performed with hESC-derived RPE for the treatment of macula regeneration. So far, no safety issues were observed and some recovery of the patients was noticed. Most of the success of this trial can be attributed to the particular characteristics of the eye, nevertheless a lot can be learned to be applied in future trials.

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