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Stem Cells

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Stem Cells Stem cells are cells that develop and differentiate into different types of cells during early development. Stem cells can replace or repair damaged tissue and cells. These cells can differentiate to become any type of cell such as a muscle cell, red blood cell, or a brain cell. Types of Stem Cells There are two different type of stem cells. The two different types of stem cells are embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells can differentiate and become any type of cell that is needed for that cell or tissue. Embryonic stem cells are found in an embryo. They can also be found in amniotic fluid and the embryo’s umbilical cord. These stem cells are currently illegal to take directly from the mother’s womb, so scientists grow these types of stem cells in laboratories. If embryonic stem cells are grown in the proper conditions, they will not begin to differentiate to form a specific cell type. If they aren’t grown in the proper conditions, they will begin to grow together and differentiate into a muscle, blood, or brain cell. The second type of stem cell is the adult stem cell. These stems cells are used to repair any damage to a cell or tissue. Adult stem cells are found in the ovaries, testis, brain, teeth, heart, liver, skin, and bone marrow. Adult stem cells are limited to the kind of cell or tissue they will become. For example, if a child gets a cut from scraping his or her knee, the adult stem cells will differentiate into only skin cells. These stem cells are also triggered by injury, so do not have to be active until triggered by injury. Potent of Stem Cells Every stem cell has a different potential in what type of cell they will become. They will either be totipotent, plurip... ... middle of paper ... ...s that scientist face when doing stem cell research. When does a human being begin to live? Scientifically, an embryo does not begin to live until 14-15 days after conception. The stem cells are taken 6-7 after conception when the embryo is a big mass of cells. This is where the controversy begins. People that are “pro-life” and many churches do not believe in growing embryonic stem cells in laboratories and then discarding them as need. In their eyes, this is murder to an unborn fetus and that this is morally wrong. To scientist, a human hasn’t properly formed and is not considered living until the 14-15th day. They see no wrong doing in this and they believe that they are helping people by finding cures and treatments to people who have diseases. There will always be controversy over embryonic stem cell research because everyone has different beliefs.