This technology, according to scientists, could foster the ability to cure any disease, illness, or injury, but at what cost? Opponents of stem cell research believe that the practice of embryonic study and culture is immoral, while proponents suggest that this technology is necessary for the advancement of medical research. In 2001, then President George W. Bush quickly sided with those believing the research to be immoral. During his primetime address, he advocated only to allow research on cell lines already in existence. Much of this side of the argument is based on the idea that human eggs are fertilized with sperm to create an embryo, and then destroyed to harvest the stem cells within the blastocyst.
There are limits and using embryonic stem cells for research purposes requires the destruction of the human embryo, and putting an end to potential human life crosses the line. Life starts at conception, and all life started with these living cells. Another reason relevant to the lack of consensus is the ... ... middle of paper ... ... to cure, we can achieve the same goal of freeing people from cancer, and other diseases in an ethical, morally sound procedure by using adult stem cells instead of embryonic stem cells for research. I am informed of the Dickey-Wicker Amendment, and your recent addition of opening up federal funding for stem cell research, and acknowledge that embryos cannot be lawfully destroyed and the use of embryonic stem cell lines from prior to 2009. I propose to stop federally funded embryonic stem cell research, and research with the use of adult stem cells should be federally funded and furthered.
One type led by researchers at the Human Genome Project entails the copying of genes and parts of chromosomes in order to get enough identical genetic material to do further research, which they believe could help prevent human diseases in the future (Cloning fact sheet). Another type of cloning is called Blastomere separation, also known as twinning. In this case they split an egg (embryo), soon after it has been fertilized which results in two or more embryos, twins, containing the same exact DNA from both parents (Cloning fact sheet). However, Dolly, was cloned from only one parent. To do this, scientists must take an egg, empty out its genetic material, and replace it with genetic material from another animal by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (Cloning fact sheet).
Also in 1998, two independent teams of US scientists successfully isolated and cultured stem cells obtained from embryos (On human embryos and medical research, 01). Scientists refer to embryonic stem cells as pluripotent meaning that each has a capacity to develop into any kind of cell in a human body (Stem cells the seeds of hope, 03). With more funding for stem cell research we will be able to unlock the infinitive value in the use of e... ... middle of paper ... ...wever it is a very controversial topic in the United States. Many people disagree with stem cell research and also tried to put laws restricting it. In the past under the Bush administration there was in fact laws passed to try to keep embryonic stem cell research from going anywhere.
Therapeutically, the notion of cloning is medically significant because cloned individuals at the embryonic stage "share the same immune characteristics as each other" (Harris 26). The possibility of cloning an individual at the embryo stage allows one clone to be used as a cell tissue and organ bank for the other. Embryonic cloning has a history of significant developments and discoveries that have occurred only in the past ten or twenty years. In the nineteen eighties and early nineteen nineties, sophisticated foetal and embryological research was banned by the United States’ Reagan and Bush administrations due to pressure from pro-life factions of the Republican party. However, these regulations against research into the controversial field were relaxed considerably with the inception of the more pro-choice Clinton administration.
Scientists attempt to map out all the genes in the human genome, hoping the completion of the Project will bring great advances to medicine and biology. However, although genetic engineering of human and new technologies empower people such as the scientists and parents to bring them much benefits, genetics also create many ethical and social issues. Fist of all, germ line gene therapy brings up many ethical issues concerning the future generations. Gene therapy is generally accepted by the public. Somatic gene therapy only altars the genetic structure of an individual, therefore the gene will not be passed on to the children.
They see their dreams return back from ashes as the doctor describes a new technique called pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. He explains the couple that this procedure consists of creating embryos, with both of their genes. These embryos are later analyzed for any genetic disease. Those with a genetic disease are discarded, leaving only the “healthy” ones, which are later injected into the woman’s uterus through in vitro fertilization. After the decade of the 90’s, much process has been made in the field of genetics, human genetics.
Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another. Scientist transfer genetic materials from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg whose nucleus has been removed. This reconstructed egg containing the DNA must be treated with chemicals or electric current to stimulate cell division. Once the cloned embryo reaches a suitable stage it is transferred to the uterus of a female host where it develops until birth (Paul Lauritzen, Cloning). The most notable example of reproductive cloning was dolly the sheep.
Finally, the egg was transplanted into a surrogate mother so it could develop. A few months later, Dolly was born. Thus, Wilmut and his team proved that cells that had already been specialized could be reprogrammed and made to develop all over again (Wilmut et al. 810-813). Not everyone is thrilled about Dr. Wilmut's discovery, though.
Embryonic stem cells work to help cure diseases because of the fact that they can turn into any cell type the body needs. Scientists can manipulate embryonic stem cells into the cells that their patients need. The major questions regarding stem cell research are is it morally permissible to destroy an embryo in search of cures of diseases? Those who are against embryonic stem cell research would argue that stem cell research destroys a potential human life. On the other hand, those who are for stem cell research would argue that genetic tests and stem cell research can help detect and find cures for diseases that as of right now have no cures.