In Ancient Rome, women shared a lot of the same ways of living as Egyptian women but there ways were a bit worse. This was because women had stricter laws against them. Although both ancient civilization were very similar, the role of women in Ancient Egypt when compared to women in Ancient Rome was greater because Egyptian women could play greater role in family, had more economic opportunities, more political rights, and played important roles in religion. Women in Ancient Egypt shared the same legal and economic rights as men. Women were capable of owning land, slaves, and could obtain possessions for themselves in many ways.
Through their artwork, tomb inscriptions, and papyrus and leather scrolls, preserved in the dry, desert air, Ancient Egyptians left evidence for scholars suggesting that Egypt was once a peculiar exception to this pattern. Anthropological evidence suggests that unusual circumstances in Ancient Egyptian culture provided for women to be given equal status to their male counterparts: notably, matrilineal inheritance and emphasis on the joy of family life over maintaining ethnic purity. Legally, women in Ancient Egypt held the same legal rights as men. A woman could own property and manage it as she saw fit. One example of this, the Inscription of Mes, provided scholars with proof that women could manage property, institute litigation, and could act as a witness before a court of law.
It is what fixes her in your house; if you repel her it is an abyss" (The Instruction of Ptahhotep, 67). Ancient Egyptian women had power over their belonging because they were able to control, manage, and even sell their properties by their own will. If the women have enough money to purchase a product or property she was allowed to purchase the desired property without any type of consequences. "The women can manage all the property of hers and can sell it
Women represent 49% of the Egyptian population. In 1956, the Constitution granted Egyptian women unconditional equal socio-political rights, thus crowning their struggle with success. Egyptian women participate in the process of development, assume the national responsibilities mentioned in the Constitution, and benefit from full legal rights that allow them to contribute in all aspects of the development process, either in the field of production or in services, according to their capabilities and skills. However, women participation in public life remains limited. This is due to a number of socio-economic and cultural factors that would tend to create a bias against females in some aspects of life, establishing thus a gender gap.
When we look back into the ancient times of Egypt, we might be surprised that the roles of women were quite different when compared to other cultures of that time. “When Herodotus visited ancient Egypt and the end of the dynastic period, he was intrigued never before seeing women appearing to be free as their men folk” (Tyldesley 1994). From the most commonly known Cleopatra, to Queen Hapshepsut, women have played significant roles in Ancient Egypt. Four queens are recorded as having ruled in their own right (Hawass). It was the most famous female pharaoh Hapshepsut and her reign that spanned one of Egypt’s most prosperous periods (Williams).
Ancient Sumerians general thoughts of women varied based on where you were looking. For example: if you looked in Egypt women held many rights and were pretty close to equal to men, but if you looked in Mesopotamia, where the book was held, you know that women were thought of as property. In Ancient Sumerian time the women were thought to be very fertile not just in the sense that they could create life but also in the since that women could do more than that. For example: one of the goddesses that they talked about in the Epic of Gilgamesh is called by the name Aruru the goddess of creation. The book says the gods cried to Aruru,” You made him, O Aruru, now create his equal; let it be as like him as his own reflection, his second self, stormy heart for stormy heart.
Along with emmer wheat, barley was a staple cereal in ancient Egypt. The Egyptians used barley for making food products such as bread, and also brewed barley into a drink . The Egyptians were an advanced civilization who were able to cultivate crops is dry areas. The people used a type of irrigation where they used the flooding of the Nile River (see image 4) in order to water their crops to save them from drought. Barley was also grown in the Middle East before 10,000 B.C.
Ancient Egypt was a very complex world, and just as complex was the role that women played in its society. They were not free, but they also were not enslaved. They were vital, but only in terms of their husbands and their children. Egypt offered women a far more free life than the rest of the ancient world. In the end, women played a secondary role to men putting their desires for achievement aside so their husband could be king.
Despite the amount of written evidence that supports women were equal to men within this social period, it is constantly found in Egyptian art, tombs, monuments and manuscripts. As women were valued for producing children, this respect was expressed in Ancient Egyptian theology and mortality. Despite this privilege women were not a part of administration or office jobs as women were only served secondary roles in temples whilst uneducated opposed to men (Crystal Links, 2013). This demonstrates the changes as to how female’s importance were viewed in society throughout different time periods. Womens rights were a powerful movement within society unlike other civilisations including Mediterranean societies which had traditional gender roles with insurmountable barriers in front of those who wanted to deviate from this pattern.
When focusing on the first civilizations appearing thousands of years ago, particularly in the west, the differences between men and women in most cultures remained accentuated, strict, and very structured. However, each different society allotted different regulations pertaining to women for their citizens to abide by. One of these ancient cultures consisted of Babylon. With the evidence provided by Hammurabi’s Law Code, it remains clear that ancient Babylonian women exercised little rights and privileges, forced to mainly maintain the structural unit of family and the home. Most women in Babylonian society took the role of an obedient wife first and foremost.