State Diplomacy Models

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State Diplomacy Models

Through recent history, state diplomacy wad divided dichotomously, only involving soft or hard power. Soft power is the ability to obtain preferred outcomes through attraction while hard power involves the use of coercion and payments to force the other party to consent to the coercer nation’s desires . When determining which diplomatic approach to pursue, countries often consider four core motivations: its past relations with the target country, its international image or the image it wishes to project, its citizens’ level of implicit consent, and dependent and independent variables.

Dependent and independent variables shape the specific course of action taken by a nation. According to Steiner in Diplomacy and International Theory, “diplomacy as dependent variable takes into account rising constraints upon diplomatic statecraft, such as public opinion, ideology, and the intrusion of specialized actors.” Nations must understand how to adapt to constraints placed on them by dependent variables on the international field; protean diplomacy should be pursued and should incorporate a nation’s ability to adapt to unforeseen political, military, and economic changes which affect the diplomatic initiative . Diplomacy as an independent variable, on the other hand, occurs when “diplomats push for dispute management in opposition to pressures that increase chances of war.” In other words, independent diplomacy proactively addresses negative influences to better the position of one’s nation on the international field.

Related to the notion of dichotomy represented by soft power and hard power is the carrot and stick approach to diplomacy, a preferred method by many western nations, including the United State...

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