However, many students freeze under normal testing procedures and may need to be evaluated in another manner. Also, it is important for teachers to understand fair grading procedures so students can best benefit from effective tests. By knowing the main ways of measuring student achievement, and proper formats for grading, students can be evaluated correctly. (Fairtest, 98) There are two main ways of evaluating a student’s work: objective tests and essay questions. Objective testing places emphasis on a precise, efficient focus on a student’s knowledge of defined variables (Kopeikin, 2000).
Educators often need to assess students' learning and achievement. There are multiple forms of assessments that educators use to not only gain knowledge about a student's level of understanding but also to guide the direction of future lessons and course curriculum. This lesson will differentiate between formal and informal assessments and performance-based assessments used in educational settings. Formal assessments are basically the official ways of finding out the learning advancement of the students that have been improved or decreased during the selected instructional period. The major examples of the formal assessments are exams, diagnostic tests, achievement examinations, screening test, intelligence tests and lots of others.
Each test is formed inside some belief; no test is culture free. Each test reveals the principles and opinions of the culture (Seefeldt & Wasik, 2014). Use of Informal Assessment Informal assessments help teachers target specific problem areas, adjust instruction, and intervene earlier to help students who are not learning what is being taught (Moersch, 2008). The information gathered from informal assessments can help educators decide how to design future lessons so that the student’s needs are met, ways students should be grouped for teaching so that each student acquires instruction at the right level of difficulty, which students need individual support, and if instruction is being delivered at the right pace. Informal assessments help a teacher discover a student's misunderstandings and abilities (or inabilities) that might not be signified correctly through other formal assessments.
Educational standards are the foundation of the modern educational endeavor. Statements about educational success imply standards. Measuring whether or not students are being properly educated involves testing them in a particular subject with its prescribed set of grade-appropriate standards that they must meet or exceed. In the United States, most students are put through a battery of tests on a yearly basis to ascertain how students, teacher and schools are performing in comparison to the state standards. From these multiple-choice standardized tests both teachers and schools determine whether their work is successful, as deemed by their state 's department of education.
This term is used to record students’ achievements and ability to meet the standards at the end of a unit or course in the form of a cumulative written or performance test. These tests measure overall achievements of norms after skills have been mastered. With the documentation of these results, teachers can determine how well they have taught the curriculum. Using these assessments makes the Circle of Learning (Teaching-Learning-Assessment Cycle) become an important part for teachers to be able to determine if students have met the standards and objectives. At this point, a teacher must have a clear idea what each standard means, including how it can and will be assessed.
The standardized tests can reveal the strengths and weaknesses of a student as well as the admission into certain programs. The test results also assist various schools in determining the proper curriculum, evaluate a specific school system, or a particular school related program. There are numerous types of standardized tests in which educators choose to measure the academic level of students. The first common standardized test, the standardized achievement test, are used to measure how much knowledge students have retained from a particular subject. The results generally assist teachers in designing achievement programs in each subject area, such as reading, math language skills, spelling, or science.
I plan to use Formative assessment in the form of a quiz after my students have begun to lean about probabilities. This way I can evaluate their understanding as well as my teaching methods. After we have finished the subject, my students will be given a summative assessment to see how much they have learned. Although probability can be taught with some interactive lessons, it is hard to give an evaluation in any other form other than a paper-pencil assessment. f. My students will be graded based on their norm –referenced score.
The alternative option that gives educators a baseline to accessing students skill sets would be formal assessment, such as standardized testing. A positive to IRI would be it informal nature. There is more pressure attached to standardized testing which could potentially affect their scores. IRIs give teachers one on one time with their students, which allows for a rapport to be established with each child. They also provide further information to shape lessons and the materials used in the classroom.
A standardized test is any test that requires all test takers to answer the same questions, or a selection of questions from a common bank of questions, in the same way. They are used to “judge” or “measure” the knowledge or skills that students learn in school. The problem with these standardized tests is that they measure all students on the same material, leaving out special skills the student may have. It also puts a great deal of stress on a student to know that they will be timed on these questions that
The point here is that standardized testing is necessary to evaluate students and programs achievement or ability. In my opinion it is a good basic start to understanding the development of human- kind in many aspects. For example, in a school setting, standardizing tests are used to measure developmental stages or reading levels, just to name a few. School Psychologist and Counselors use standardizing testing to look at the development of students. They will agree severe disabilities to be initially detected by some source of standardized testing.