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Stages of In Vitro Ferlization

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In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is a procedure in which an egg (oocyte) from a woman’s ovaries is removed and separately fertilized with male sperm in a laboratory before being implanted into the woman’s fallopian tubes. 1 2 The first stage of IVF is called superovulation. Follicles are structures within which the oocyte develops, in order to retrieve multiple follicles several hormone and drug combinations are administered. Consequently, the ovary stops function and allows the follicles to ripen at the same time when stimulated therefore providing an increased number of eggs to harvest. Follicles are considered mature after 8 to 9 days and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is administered which enables the final maturation of the oocytes.3 Oocyte retrieval occurs through a procedure called ultrasound guided vaginal retrieval. Usually, 5 to 15 oocytes are suctioned out of the follicles. 4 The male provides a semen sample by ejaculation and the semen sample undergoes a screeing. This is to remove any chemical substances or additional material before being added to the egg. 3 Approximately 50,000-100,000 motile spermatozoa are added to each egg and incubated overnight. However if fertilization does not occur, Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection is performed, where eggs are directly inseminated

Fertilised eggs are incubated for 2 more days before implantation. Typically, 2 to 4 embryos are implanted to increase pregnancy chances. A catheter is used to transport the embryos, with additional fluid, to the upper part of the uterus. 5 Therefore completing the IVF procedure.

Pregnancy rates from IVF procedures are approximately 20-30% per cycle. 6 Developments in IVF have enabled the use of donor eggs that have been fertilised a...

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.... Artificial Insemination (IUI) uses a catheter to directly inject sperm into the uterus during ovulation. It is considered a simpler and less invasive approach to IVF.18 Another alternative to IVF is Gamete Intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) which requires healthy fallopian tubes, whereas IVF does not. It involves implanting unfertilized eggs and male sperm into the fallopian tubes via a laparoscope.19 I believe that due to the increase of IVF due to technological advances, the future of IVF can be predicted to be more successful. It is assumed that medical technology will be able to ensure a more in depth procedure for genetic screening, even altering genetic code in an embryo. This would achieve creating ‘designer babies’ with the desirable features of the parents choosing. As well as significantly reducing the number of babies born with hereditary diseases.
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