Sprint Training Methods

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Previous research into the area of sprint performance has focused on what type of training can be done to improve performance (Whitney et al., 2005). A common method used is repeated practice of the performance of a sprint (Edge et al., 2005). This induces a learning effect; this learning effect is the improvement in performance through continued repetitions (Gibala et al., 2006). An alternative training method used by coaches for training purposes is the use of resistance training to increase skeletal muscular strength, the hamstring group, gluteus maximus and adductor magnus are considered the most important skeletal muscles in speed production (Delecluse, 2006). High velocity strength training uses exercises that train the muscles to recruit the fastest motor units (Delecluse et al., 1998). The motor units that can produce the most rapid contractions are the neuromuscular pathways that will become developed to allow a rapid response to signals inducing muscular contractions (Wilmore et al., 2008). Other training methods include the use of resisted sprints. These resisted sprints will use equipment such a towing sled, resistance parachutes or weighted vests. The use of this equipment can increase the resistance and help produce increased stress on the muscle and a training effect while not affecting the kinematics of the performers sprint (Duthie, 2006). Sprinting is categorised into stages: the acceleration phase (0-10m), the maximal running speed phase (36-100m) and a transition phase in between (Delecluse, 1997). Other inclusions into an athlete’s training regime may include the use of Olympic lifts. These techniques have been shown to increase the power and strength of muscles, at a greater extent than power lifting or res... ... middle of paper ... ...he eccentric phase, the more energy there is available to use in the concentric phase; therefore allowing more work to be done in the concentric phase. Mechanism Three, Force Potentiation suggests that cross-bridges that are formed can have increased power output as a result of the previous training. This only occurs within muscles that have long lengths as it affects the amount of cross bridges that can be formed. The fourth and final mechanism is the suggestion that a stretch reflex can be induced by the force lengthening of the muscle at the beginning of the SSC. The use of the strength shortening cycle is also in effect within Olympic weightlifting movements. The purpose of this study would be to investigate the intervention of Olympic lifting into a performers training regime and observe the effect of improving performance through the use of the intervention.

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