Sports During the Gilded Age Specifically during the Gilded Age, African Americans, women and the lower-class were all discriminated against in sporting arenas just as they have been in every aspect of American society. Unfortunately early on in the Gilded Age, sports clearly showed the "significant under-representation among key equality and diversity groups in society"(http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/era.cfm?eraid=9). However, as sports became more popular, Americans came to the realization that there were barriers that needed to be broken between minorities, women and different social-classes. Changing the face of America, the history of sports started off from being games played primarily for entertainment and leisure, to creating equality amongst everyone. The history of sports has been marked by division and discrimination but also has affected modern popular culture and changing social attitudes and standards towards gender equality, social-class and race. Social-class played an important role in sports. It dictated who could participate in what sports and to what level of participation. The terminal factor associated with social class was money. Money was the means to obtain the equipment necessary to partake in the sports. Without money, one couldn't perform organized sports. Furthermore, this issue was only limiting the already restricted minorities. Barriers between social-classes resulted in sports also being separated by social-class. The middle-class and upper-class took on sports such as football and boxing. They could afford the equipment for the organized sports. However, the lower-class didn't have much money, so they made do with what they had. One "sport" that was exclusively a lower-clas... ... middle of paper ... ...t and leisure, to creating equality amongst everyone. The history of sports has been marked by division and discrimination but also has affected modern popular culture and changing social attitudes and standards towards gender equality, social-class and race. During the Gilded Age and after, sports finally broke the barrier between gender, social-class, and equality. It allowed blacks to be able to play sports with whites, women to play sports with men, and it allowed the poor to play sports with the middle-class and wealthy. Not only did sports in the Gilded Age allow barriers to be broken, but it also allowed sports to be shared amongst different races, women, and social-classes. Different sports such as prizefighting, boxing, and swimming were introduced by the minorities in society, and have now become some of the most popular sports today. .
Historical and sociological research has shown, through much evidence collection and analysis of primary documents that the American sporting industry can give an accurate reflection, to a certain extent, of racial struggles and discrimination into the larger context of American society. To understand this stance, a deep look into aspects of sport beyond simply playing the game must be a primary focus. Since the integration of baseball, followed shortly after by American football, why are the numbers of African American owners, coaches and managers so very low? What accounts for the absence of African American candidates from seeking front office and managerial roles? Is a conscious decision made by established members of each organization or is this matter a deeper reflection on society? Why does a certain image and persona exist amongst many African American athletes? Sports historians often take a look at sports and make a comparison to society. Beginning in the early 1980’s, historians began looking at the integration of baseball and how it preceded the civil rights movement. The common conclusion was that integration in baseball and other sports was indeed a reflection on American society. As African Americans began to play in sports, a short time later, Jim Crow laws and segregation formally came to an end in the south. Does racism and discrimination end with the elimination of Jim Crow and the onset of the civil rights movement and other instances of race awareness and equality? According to many modern sports historians and sociologists, they do not. This paper will focus on the writings of selected historians and sociologists who examine th...
The name The Gilded Age given to America by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner does not fit the time period. The words Gilded in essence means golden but the Gilded Age (1870-1900) was not that. The Gilded Age had success, like the economic boom and the formation of labor unions, but the weaknesses of that era were far greater than those accomplishments, like the ill prepared government, the unequal distribution of wages and the racial discrimination held against the Chinese, African Americans and the Indians.
It goes without saying that a person's gender, racial and social origins influence their participation in sports. Particular races and genders often dominate certain sports. African Americans, for example, tend to dominate football and basketball, while Caucasians tend to dominate ice hockey. The same holds true for gender as well. Football is an entirely male dominated sport, while horseback riding, gymnastics and figure skating are much more female oriented. How and why did these divisions come about? Determining the origin of gender goes beyond the scope of this paper, however one can speculate about how gender classifications and stereotypes affect one's role in the sports arena.
Have you ever heard about racial discrimination and what is it? Racial discrimination is defined as the action of a persons who treat differently or who excludes another person just for his or her racial or ethnic origin. Racial discrimination continues to exist in the world and may never end with it. For example, in the documentary "Linsanity" Lin mentions that he was a victim of racial discrimination and that despite everything that happened, he was able to reach the American dream. Finally, from watching this documentary, I can strongly be argued that Discrimination is also present in sports, and that depends on what privileges you enjoy will be easier the way to reach what you want.
Gender inequality affected sporting activities among high school and colleges in America in the 1970s, to an extent that the female gender were marginalized and could not freely participate in games like athletics, basketball and hockey (Houser, 2013). There even existed one sporting body, the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which over saw the sporting activities at this level. This body was reported to be in opposition of the female gender sporting activities. It was not until the year 1972, when the popular title IX, was passed into law. This title read that “no person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” The core theme of title IX was to eliminate discrimination in the sporting sector and to promote the status of the female gender in the same field. This title is contained in the Education Amendment Act of the year 1972, and it was meant to fill the gaps present in the title VII, which was included in the Civil Rights applied into law in the year1964 (ibid). It after the emergence of this title that brought the motivation towards the implementation of equality in the sporting sector, an idea that was pushed for by the popular Lonnie Leotus “Lee” Morrison. This essay accounts for the efforts made by Morrison in effort towards achieving gender equality in sports at high school and college level.
Miller, Patrick B. Wiggins, David K. Sport and the color line: Black athletes and Race relations in Twentieth-century America. 2004. The Journal of Southern History 70 (4) (Nov 2004): 990.
Introduction--While some sports were not as popular as they are today, little did people know how large of a role they would play in society during the 1930s.
“The athletic craze began in the late nineteenth century when American’s were looking for some recreational activities to add to their daily lives during the Depression. In the cities, industrial wage earners frequented play grounds. They went dancing at the dance halls and had fun at the amusement parks. People that lived in rural areas simply rode bicycles, played baseball or football. “
Sports have been played all around the world for hundreds of thousands of years. Its help shaped the way we live as human beings. Everything reveals around sports these days. Take baseball for example, it’s has grown to be known as Americas past time. Mainly because it has help shaped America. How? Why? You may ask yourself. Baseball has been a sport that has been around for a long time all the way it roots date back to the late 1800. However it didn’t really get popular until the 1860. During this time America was going throw some difficulty’s because of World War 2 with Germany becoming an ultimate power house and African Americans not having equal rights. People turned to sports to put their minds to ease however African Americans wanted to be equal as well but people weren’t not giving them the respect they wanted to revise.
During the 19th century, America was going through an important transition. The nation was dealing with the aftermath of the civil war and the following reconstruction of the South. The Reconstruction period was the precursor to the period deemed the “Gilded Age”. The nation saw economic growth and the creation of the mass market. The rise of industrialization and transition to urban living were some of the defining moments of this period. However, the most defining idea of the Gilded Age is Reform: Social, Political, and economic. The Gilded Age was plagued with the problems that, the reconstruction period failed to solve. During the Gilded Age, social, political, and economic reform movements were gaining ground. Blacks and other minorities (immigrants) were still facing discrimination. Blacks in particular were still facing discrimination and lack of rights despite being free United States citizens.
The presence of activity and sport is found within cultures and societies all over the world, and throughout history. Activity in the form of sport can often be the purest form of expression for a society or individual. The sporting world is often thought to be a microcosm of the actual world with the problems and issues of society still being ever present in the sporting community. Since sport can be used as an expression of self, it is no wonder that sport is often a reflection of the society that it occupies. One such society that was deeply impacted by the role of sport is that of Native American boarding school students in the 1800’s and 1900’s. These students lived tough lives but just like how it had helped other cultural societies, sport was able to provide these students with basic needs of autonomy and pride.
White owners and coaches of both professional and collegiate sports teams didn't agree to integration of African Americans in order to push for equality in 20th century America. The real reason is they had to for the benefit of themselves and their team. In all sports, shortly before integration, black athleticism became more and more prominent. It was clear that some of the best players in the country were black and were being excluded from the white teams, when they were clearly skilled enough to play. But, no white person at the time wanted to work with a black man, much less empower him by allowing him to perform on the
The significance of the Gilded Age was expanded to include the period from the end of Reconstruction to the early twentieth century. During the Gilded Age the United States became the leading industrial nation in the world, defeated a world power, built a powerful navy, and acquired a large overseas empire. The Gilded Age came alone with some tremendous urban growth with all its accompanying problems, the changes in communications and transportation through the telephone and the transcontinental railroads. The significance of the Gilded Age Era is a time of exciting and important scientific and technological inventions and improvements, such as the electric light, the telephone, and the typewriter, which have had and continue to have an impact upon American life.
Dealing with the issue of sport and ethnology, three major factors come to mind; prejudice, racism, and discrimination. These factors span across gender, ethnic, racial, religious, and cultural groups. In the following paragraphs, I will discuss how these factors have played a part in the evolution of sport in our society. The first issue tackled in this paper will be racism in sports, followed by prejudice and discrimination.