Spintronics Essay

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Spintronics is based on manipulating the flow of spin polarized current in metals and semiconductors. Introducing spin degrees of freedom and charge into the present semiconductor electronics at nanoscale level is a very important issue for realizing novel devices. Research is being carried out for the development of magnetic random access memories and nonvolatile logic applications by extensively studying novel spin based semiconductor device structures and magnetic material semiconductor hybrid structures. We can create spin polarization using many methods, that will lead to hole induced ferromagnetism in the case of InAs and GaAs alloyed with Mn [1]. This made it possible to integrate ferromagnetism with existing nonmagnetic Ill-V heterostructures. Carrier concentration has been modulated using insulating gate field-effect transistor structure and we were able to realize reversible electrical switching of the ferromagnetic phase transition and coercive force [1]. Ferromagnetic semiconductors may prove to be useful in developing spintronic devices that combine magnetization switching with other spin-related effects, once the transition temperature of these materials reaches well beyond room temperature. An overview of semiconductor spintronics has been presented here:

• GaMnAs based heterostructures: It was observed that highly coherent tunneling occurs in Gallium Manganese Arsenide(GaMnAs) based heterostructures, when the GaMnAs quantum-well thickness was varied from 3.8 to 20 nm. To observe resonant tunneling in this system, it was found that the Fermi level of the electrode injecting carriers is important [2].

Materials drawing a lot of attention for spintronic applications are dilute magnetic semiconductors (normal semic...

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...compared to moving the electrons.This polymer-based magnet semiconductor has been applied as a spin polarizer (to save data) and a spin detector (to read the data). It is flexible, light weight, low cost, easier to fabricate. Curie temperature is above 350K [4].

• Researchers at North Carolina State University have fabricated a new compound, Strontium tin oxide (Sr3SnO). Sr3SnO is a dilute magnetic semiconductor, which can be integrated into silicon chips. Researchers could not effectively integrate the other dilute magnetic semiconductors materials on a silicon substrate. This is needed so that they can be used in smart devices. The researchers synthesized Strontium tin oxide (Sr3SnO), as an epitaxial thin film on a silicon chip. Transistors operating at room temperature based on magnetic fields instead of electrical currents could be developed using Sr3SnO [5].
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