There has been some research that shows the use of indirect methods like changing parent interaction style can increase fluency with the least amount of involvement. This can create a “firm foundation for direct therapy and gives parents long-term essential skills that will support the child’s speech” (p. 637). This current research on ... ... middle of paper ... ...ing an indirect method with younger children. The research also indicates that the PCIT approach is one indirect method that is successful in reducing stuttering in young children. It also indicated that the children who do not make progress with this approach will need additional therapy.
The use of these defense mechanisms short-term may serve as a protective barrier for the psyche and decrease the damaging effects of trauma. But long-term use will consequently lead to internal confusion and conflict (Hosier 1). Many children learn to use multiple defense mechanisms interchangeably to cope with complex trauma throughout their childhood. Moreover, Complex trauma is a leading factor in many health issues and diagnoses such as ADHD, ADD, Anxiety disorder, Borderline disorder, depression, bipolar, and PTSD. The list of possible diagnoses is endless, and finding proper treatment is a struggle.
Maura R. Mclaughlan, M. (2011). Speech and Language Delay in Children. American Family Physician, 1183-1188. Stothard, M., Snowling, M., Bishop, D., Chipchase, B., & Kaplan, C. (1998). Language-impaired preschoolers: a follow-up into adolescence.
The Effects of Child Abuse on Behavior Many people assume that there are specific behaviors associated with a child who is or has been abused. However, research shows that there are many different behaviors such children may exhibit. These behaviors are usually from one end of the spectrum or the other. However, no matter the type of behavior displayed by the child the abuse is very destructive to the child in many ways; psychologically and biologically. Their future will hold many problems in learning, emotions, and behavior (Brassard et al., 2009).
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association | ASHA. Retrieved November 20, 2011, from http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/Childh oodApraxia.htm Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Causes and Number. (2011). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association | ASHA. Retrieved November 25, 2011, from http://www.asha.org/public/spe ech/disorders/ChildhoodApraxiaCauses.htm Gretz, S. (2011).
Lyons, A. M., Leon, S. C., Phelps, C., & Dunleavy, A. M. (2010). The Impact of Child Symptom Severity on Stress Among Parents of Children with ASD: The Moderating Role of Coping Styles. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 19(4), 516-524. Weiss, J., & Lunsky, Y. (2011).
However, the impacts will depend on the child’s condition, and its severity, as well as the emotional, physical, and the financial resources available to take care of the child. Autism is a condition that affects a child’s brain functioning. It is a prevalent developmental disorder, which appears in children before the age of three. A child with autism is not able to express their needs like any other normal child because, this disorder affects their ability to communicate and interact with others. Therefore, this leaves parents and caregivers to play a guessing game on what specifically the child maybe asking for.
Pediatrics, 108(1), 142-151. Vasquez, E. , & Pitts, K. (2006). Red flags during home visitation: Infants and toddlers. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 23(2), 123-131. Yanos, P. , Czaja, S. , & Widom, C. (2010).
Improving communication is more than just helping the children learn how to speak but, help them find other ways to communicate with people through techniques such as, sign language. There are different techniques that are used for those who have autism because there are varying degrees. The speech therapist can mix and match some of the techniques such as; typing, singing songs, using flash cards with pictures and words. The techniques speech therapist use help verbal and non-verbal autistic people communicate. The therapy treatment also includes how many autistic children will start to develop conversational skills, use the correct words, and also how to respond to social situations.
Bibliography: Bristol, Marie M., Autism: Early Identification and Management in Family Practice. American Family Physician 1991, 1755-1764. Mesibov G, Shea V., From Theoretical Understanding to Educational Practice. The Culture of Autism 1996, 1-21. Prizzant Barry M., Asperger’s Syndrome.