TOLUENE HYDRODEALKYLATION PROCESS Toluene hydrodealkylation or hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) is a process that used to produce benzene. The reaction occurs as: Toluene + H2 Benzene + CH4 The process need toluene and hydrogen as a main reactor. Then, toluene and hydrogen are converted in a reactor packed with catalyst to produce benzene and methane. This reaction is exothermic and the operating conditions are 500 0C to 660 0C, and 20 to 60 bar of pressure. This process begins with mixing fresh toluene with a stream of recycle unreacted toluene, and the mixing is achieved in a storage tank.
Type 3: In this type of reactor, direct heat transfer is introduced from an inert hot material such as hot gases or sand. Type 4: In this type of reactor, there is indirect heat transfer through the reactor walls. This means that heat is introduced to the reactor via an external heat source due to the combustion of one or more of the pyrolysis products (Heynderickx
Benzoic acid and water are thus produced. The reaction is exothermic and temperature is maintained by external cooling. The crude molten benzoic acid at about 150-200°C is transferred from the reactor to distillation column, where separation of benzoic acid from unreacted toluene and produced water takes place. The toluene is then separated and recycled to the first oxidizing reactor. The pure benzoic acid is fed to a second reactor, where it is oxidized to phenol by air and steam under 1.3 – 1.7 atm at 220°C in the presence of cupric benzoate catalyst promoted with Manganese.
Operating principles of the flame phometric detector The Flame Photometric Detector (FPD) is similar to the flam ionization detector (FID) in that the sample enters a hydrogen fueled flame in a chamber with an exhaust vent. The FID measures ions produced by organic compounds during combustion, whilst the FPD analyzes the spectrum emitted as compound luminesce in the flame. The detector chamber is light tight to allow only photons from the flame to enter the photomultiplier tube (PMT). The detector uses a secondary air and hydrogen flow. The former serves to purge the optical path between the PMT and the flame and thus increases instrument sensitivity by increasing hydrogen flow to the flame whilst the latter is directed across the surface of the PMT to inhibit helium and or hydrogen gas from permeating the glass window and thus preventing instrument malfunction.
3.2 Instrumentation: Instrumentation is the branch of engineering that deals with measurement and control. The instrument that is used for the determination of concentration of trace metals is AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). The official definition of instrumentation- is a collection of instruments and their application for the purpose of observation, measurement and control . An instrument is a device that measures or manipulates variables such as flow, absorbance, emission, temperature, level, or pressure. Instrument includes many varied contrivances which can be as simple as valves and transmitters, and as complex as analyzers.
For examp... ... middle of paper ... ...O3 → H2O + CO2. This carbon dioxide comes out as gas bubbles that overflow the container, which is usually a volcano model. (http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemicalreactions/f/What-Is-The-Equation-For-The-Reaction-Between-Baking-Soda-And-Vinegar.htm)(http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemicalvolcanoes/ss/volcano.htm) The amount and types of particles all create the identities of elements. Whether or not an element can react with another and the type of reaction that occurs all depends on how many protons, neutrons, and electrons its atoms have. Therefore, the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid depends on the properties of elements they are made of, which depend on how many electrons there are in the valence layer.
A burst of hot, oxygen enriched air is blown into the air-blast nozzle located at the near bottom of the furnace. What follows are a number of oxidation and reduction type reactions which ultimately produce the metallic iron. [IMAGE] One of these reactions is the coke being burnt. The heat generated by this reaction increases the bottom of the furnace to a temperature near 19000° C. This reaction is represented in a chemical equation: C(s) + O2(g) ® CO2(g) + heat The carbon dioxide generated rises halfway up the furnace, where it reacts with the hotter coke. This causes the carbon dioxide to reduce into carbon monoxide.
Therefore the metallic iron can be tapped off and removed for further refining. Below is a diagram of a blast furnace you can see at the top the reactants are fed into the blast furnace and at the bottom the molten iron is being tapped off and taken away in carriages. [IMAGE] There is a lot of waste products in the layer of slag that is formed when the process of obtaining molten iron is carried out. The table below shows the usual composition of slag showing the different waste products created: Name of Compound Symbol of compound Percentage Composition Calcium oxide CaO 38% Silicon dioxide SiO2 36% Alumina Al2O 3 12%
The copper will float to the top of the slurry mixture when air is blown through the mixture and a frothed layer or a foaming layer allows the copper to attach and overflow the tank, this is called ore benefaction. This is when the concentrated copper gets refined. The concentrate is dried and sent into a reverberatory furnace. The minerals are partly oxidized and melted, resulting in isolated layers. The matte layer refers to the iron-copper sulfide mixture which sinks to the bottom.
The oxalic acid (dissolved in 25ml water) was also added and this combined solution was slowly heated to boiling, resulting in the formation of yellow iron(II) oxalate precipitate. The liquid was decanted and 15ml of hot water was added again to the precipitate, this was stirred and filtered. The precipitate (iron(II) oxalate) was transferred to another beaker and a potassium oxalate solution (dissolved in 10ml hot water) was added.