Somalia's Struggle for Power

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Somalia’s struggle for power to establish a sovereign Somali state has raised international concerns of terrorism, piracy, human trafficking and famine causing instability locally and throughout the Horn of Africa. Although U.S. backed Somali Federal Government (SFG) has had some recent success against the al Qaeda (AQ) linked al-Shabaab, Somalia continue to face local and regional border disputes. Somalia has historically relied on outside actors who later abandoned Somalia due to a shift in foreign policy and interest. This paper will prove that the power for struggle in Somalia is the root cause of instability in Somalia and throughout the Horn of Africa. This will be explored by examining Somali’s regional relations, U.S and al-Shabaab’s involvement in Somalia and assessing past and present facts, assumptions and the implications of their actions towards U.S. interests. Somali Never Ending Wars Somali and Ethiopians share a long history of power struggle over disputed border boundaries. The earliest hostile encounters between Somali and Ethiopians, dates back to the sixteenth century during Imam Ahmed Ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi or Ahmed Gran’s jihad (holy war) (Gorman, 1981). Gran’s Muslim forces took control of a vast portion of Ethiopia and forced thousand to convert to Islam that left a deep physiological affect between Ethiopians and Somali’s. Ahmed Gran’s, success later came to an end as the Portuguese musketeers came to Ethiopia’s rescue (Gorman, 1981). Without Gran, and the cause of a holy war, Somalia found themselves under European domination. From 1840 - 1890s the British, established British Somiland, Italy also claimed Italian Somalia, and Ethiopia claimed the Ogaden region of western Somaliand. These boundaries were ... ... middle of paper ... ...emains in powers the countries woes and the struggle for power will continue. Works Cited Ottaway, Marina. Soviet and American Influence in the Horn of Africa. New York: 1982. Print. Gorman, Robert. Politcal Conflict on the Horn of Africa. New York: 1981. Print Clarke, Walter and Jeffrey Herbst. Learning from Somalia. Colorado: 1997. Print Kuperman, Alan. The Limits of Humantarian Intervention. Washington D.C.: Print Campbell, John. Al Shabaab, AMISOM, and the United State. CFR. Web. 30 March. 2014 Woodward, Peter. U. S. Foreign Policy and the Horn of Africa. GBR. 2006: Print Dougherty, Kevin. United States Military in Limited War : Case Studies in Success and Failure. North Carolina: 1945-1999. Print Horn, EJ. Somalia's Power Struggle. ICG. Web. 30 March. 2014 “History of Somalia”. History of Nations. Web. 1 April. 2014 “Al-Shababb”. NCTC. Web. 1April. 2014

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